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It depends on your goals. If you're feeding fondant/heavy syrup/MCM to prevent starvation, a few months ago :). If you're building for spring splits, a couple brood cycles before your main pollen flows. If you want a strong field force for the first honey flow, a couple brood cycles before that.

The main risks (well, not risks so much as be-awares) to spring feeding are swarming and contamination/syrup-bound broodnest. If you feed indiscriminately, the bees could build up quickly and if you're not conscientious can swarm. If you overfeed, they can have syrup stores that may mix with a potential honey crop (contamination). Or they can lay up so much syrup that the queen's ability to lay eggs is hampered due to all the cells being full of syrup. This condition is called being "honeybound" when it's nectar but it probably happens more as being syrup bound from overfeeding.

Check with beeks in your area for when the various flows start; that'll help. And decide what your management goal from feeding is; don't feed for feeding's sake, but with a goal in mind. Goal met, stop feeding.
 
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