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5 ,8 ,10 frame, and long Lang
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This paper states that "The application of smoke to honey bee (Apis mellifera) antennae reduced the subsequent electroantennograph response of the antennae to honey bee alarm pheromones." In other words, smoke is helpful. Got it.

According to the EPA, smoke "... is composed primarily of carbon dioxide, water vapor, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals, nitrogen oxides, trace minerals and several, thousand other compounds."

But what exactly in smoke is it that has that effect? I've never puffed my hives with just water vapor, or just carbon dioxide, but I am curious if any of you have run any experiments or know of other research?
The hint of a fire on the way.

for 100,000 years or more bees lived in trees, Forest fires were something needing be evolve to handle.

stay and burn up, gorge leave and reproduce.

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