There have been many discussions about the relative quality of queens from emergency cells, vs supercedure or swarm cells.Questions of the importance of the amount of royal jelly in cells at time of queen emergence, and viewing whether open brood was swimming in jelly or just so so. In such discussions I have voiced the opinion that anything more than merely adequate was likely a waste. In doing some more reading in prep. for grafting some queens next season I see there is reason to question this.
It seems there is well documented experiment to show that conditions can be staged that result in enhanced queen properties considerable above what would result from grabbing any frame with apparent proper aged larvae. Banking the mother queen for a few days, selecting larger sized cell cups are two things that I have not seen commonly considered. The importance of the standard, crowding, pre conditioning nurse bees, adjacent frames of pollen and honey, simulating a flow etc., is a given.
This link is food for thought; there are others similar but I found this one easy to digest. https://www.researchgate.net/public...aring_Young_Honey_Bee_Queens_Apis_mellifera_L