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Are you sure MNR has replaced SMR???
Juhani:

My apologies for the delay in reply- I have been away from the computer. In short, I am not sure that that MNR has replaced SMR but the paper indicates the following:

The terminology SMR implies an active contribution of an external agent to the reproduction failure of varroa, even though such failure can be intrinsic to the varroa, as described above. This is why the new terminology, mite non-reproduction (MNR), has been recently proposed and will be used thereafter in this study.

The paper cross-references the following research which defines the terms as follows:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002075192030093X?via=ihub

Mite non-reproduction (MNR)- Failure of a foundress mite to produce at least one adult, mated female that will enter the colony’s mite population when the developing bee emerges from the cell as an adult bee. A foundress mite will not be successful at reproduction if she does not lay any eggs (infertile), lays only one egg, produces no male offspring or begins laying her eggs too late in relation to the pupal development.

Suppressed mite reproduction (SMR)- Redefined as only cases of mite non-reproduction that are regulated by traits expressed by the brood.


So I would understand this to mean that MNR has been applied to represent what was previously defined as SMR, and that SMR has been given a new definition that explicitly relates to brood-driven resistance mechanisms.
 

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Great story, Juhani. I am glad you were able to make increase off this colony and I will be interested to see if these genetics prove worthwhile to incorporate into your breeding program.

I wonder if part of the reason we don't see more unmanaged colonies is simply because of how inconspicuous they often are- until they swarm or are stumbled upon by accident.

Here's hoping all your Fall beekeeping efforts are successful.

Russ
 

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Good write-up, Juhani. Congratulations on building a successful and resilient breeding stock.
 

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Discussion Starter #128
Apparently you were facing the cop. Not back to them. 7 shots in the back is attempted murder. ( and poor shooting as well poor choices that allowed him to get to the car door.)
In Finland cops are trained to stop a suspect in an emergency situation by shooting in the legs. If the do not comply orders. The threshold to use a gun is VERY high. The use of a remote stun gun (not killing, just falling you down) has however increased lately.


The clip above is from a closed thread. Lately I have been thinking what is the point for me being here in BeeSource. It is taking quite a lot of time to follow and comment the threads. What do I get? Is it enough?

My nature tells me to teach and change the world for better.

I am worried, among other things about climate change and the state of US, I thought by writing I could do something. My drop in an ocean. Wishful thinking. All I got was shouting and name calling, even though I tried to to as polite as possible.

I closed my Facebook and Twitter accounts. The reason to leave was that I used too much time with them and I got worried about their impact in my brains and mind. And their impact in general on our societies. How they create bubbles and divide people into fighting groups.

If you wish to contact me please write e-mail
[email protected]

or by Instagram (juhanilunden)
 

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In Finland cops are trained to stop a suspect in an emergency situation by shooting in the legs. If the do not comply orders. The threshold to use a gun is VERY high. The use of a remote stun gun (not killing, just falling you down) has however increased lately.


The clip above is from a closed thread. Lately I have been thinking what is the point for me being here in BeeSource. It is taking quite a lot of time to follow and comment the threads. What do I get? Is it enough?

My nature tells me to teach and change the world for better.

I am worried, among other things about climate change and the state of US, I thought by writing I could do something. My drop in an ocean. Wishful thinking. All I got was shouting and name calling, even though I tried to to as polite as possible.

I closed my Facebook and Twitter accounts. The reason to leave was that I used too much time with them and I got worried about their impact in my brains and mind. And their impact in general on our societies. How they create bubbles and divide people into fighting groups.

If you wish to contact me please write e-mail
[email protected]

or by Instagram (juhanilunden)
I'm not sure how this got into the treatment free discussion but again my friend, you drift sometimes into politics. You should come to the States sometime and drive across it. As far as shooting, I survived 3 trips to the middle east and was trained to defend myself with direct shots to the head. Reason? First, you need to eliminate the threat to you and your team, second, only one story afterwards. At the time, I could do a 4 inch pattern at 800 meters with my M24 338. I've always planned on coming home. I still hunt with a 700, but only for dinner.
 

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.....

I closed my Facebook and Twitter accounts.........

If you wish to contact me please write e-mail
[email protected]

or by Instagram (juhanilunden)
Good - killing the FB/Twitter accounts.
I would kill Instagram also.

I have never had these and have no intention to participate in that techno non-sense.
Unfortunately, the BS is looking more like FB/Twitter also (too inviting for use-less posts and waste of time of oneself and others).

All is needed - one-directional public blog without public comments - the comments just turn into the FB-like mess.
Such blog is fine and sufficient, IF one wants to still contribute something for the public - I hope that is the case for Juhani Lunden blog.
When people contact by email, they are more deliberate and that is usually worthwhile communication.
 

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Juhani:

While I will miss your insights and contributions here based on your significant experience and success in resistance breeding, I certainly appreciate the need to focus one's time and attention in the avenues that afford the best return on the investment. It has been a pleasure communicating with you on Beesource, and I sincerely wish you and your family all the best.

Russ

p.s. I saw this trap-out in progress today and thought of your recent post about the bees in your barn. This colony is set-up in a tree less than 100 feet from the park bench where I spend most of my lunch breaks and I was never aware of their presence.
 

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more on the smr story:

https://www.researchgate.net/public...tance_in_European_Honey_Bees_Apis_mellifera_L

"Several colonies from our dataset display high SMR scores indicating that this trait is present within the European honey bee populations. The trait is highly variable between colonies and some countries, but no major differences could be identified between countries for a given genotype, or between genotypes in different countries. This study shows the potential to increase selective breeding efforts of V. destructor resistant populations."
 

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Great post, SP. I enjoyed reading the research paper. A few things stood out to me:

Standardizing the testing protocol

The first goal was to standardize and validate the SMR evaluation method, and then to compare the SMR trait between the different populations. Our results indicate that it is necessary to examine at least 35 brood cells infested by a single mite to reliably estimate the SMR score of any given colony.

Even when the scoring was based on 35 single-infested cells, there remained considerable variation around the true SMR score.


The complex interaction between host and parasite

Several different mechanisms may trigger the SMR phenotype and may originate from host and/or parasite features. SMR can indirectly result from adult bee behaviors such as varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) or recapping behaviors. Mechanisms of physiology or behavior of the brood may also influence the ability of varroa to reproduce, but remain unknown. Parasite features may also influence varroa reproduction, such as variation in mite genotypes, or the physiological status of mites invading cells.

The failure of mites to reproduce, regardless if depending on host and/or parasite mechanisms or environmental factors, can be characterized by three different features of mite reproduction: infertility of the mite, i.e., total absence of offspring, absence of the male, which will prevent the mating of the female offspring, or a delay in egg laying and/or offspring development which will prevent mites from reaching the adult stage before the developing bee emerges.


No correlation between mite load and SMR score

Overall, no correlation was found between the SMR score and the proportion of absent males, infertile foundresses, or delayed reproduction.

Despite high infection rates found in some colonies (up to 80% in the brood), no correlation was observed between mite loads and SMR scores in the present study.


Selection precepts

Colonies from preselected populations with increased varroa resistance displayed a significantly higher SMR score than unselected ones.

… the SMR scores of colonies originating from preselected stock were consistently and significantly higher than the scores of unselected genotypes. The present scores observed in both the French surviving population (0.47 ± 0.12) and the VSH hybrid genotype (0.57 ± 0.11) were in the range of previous results from the French population (0.59 ± 0.02) and that reported from the mite-surviving population from Gotland (0.48 ± 0.02).

When initiating any breeding attempts on the SMR trait in a given environment, it is important to screen the local population for the presence and variability of SMR and thereby evaluate its potential for selection.


Summary

SMR stands as a complex trait, as it can be triggered by several host and/or parasite mechanisms, influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors, and remains challenging to phenotype accurately in the field.
 

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I saw a lot of holes and questions...........me thinks someone is angling for funding

Suppression of mite reproduction is considered a colony-level trait and defined by the proportion of worker brood cells containing non-reproducing mother mites. The trait was found to be heritable [30] and was utilized in U.S. breeding programs since the late 1990s [31–33
ok so 30-33 are all about VSH....
but then they say VSH isn't SMR
SMR can indirectly result from adult bee behaviors such as varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) or recapping behaviors
then say
Suppression of mite reproduction (SMR) has been recognized as an important trait for survival in naturally resistant honey bee populations [24,28] and has been successfully implemented in breeding programs in the U.S. [22,31,43,44].
no the us programs used VSH... thats why the SMR was dropped when the underlying mechanism was shown...

however in this work, they don't identify what causes SMR, or rule out VSH witch seem odd

We also included 23 colonies from two populations that were preselected for varroa resistance: A. m. mellifera hybrids from a French varroa-surviving population [17] and colonies containing A. m. mellifera hybrid queens artificially inseminated with semen collected from colonies of a VSH (Varroa sensitive hygiene) breeding program
the SMR scores of colonies originating from preselected stock were consistently and significantly higher than the scores of unselected genotypes. The present scores observed in both the French surviving population (0.47 ± 0.12) and the VSH hybrid genotype (0.57 ± 0.11) were in the range of previous results from the French population (0.59 ± 0.02) and that reported from the mite-surviving population from Gotland (0.48 ± 0.02).
ok so out VSH outcrossed with non select stock performed better then bonded bred to bonded stock. Not a huge surprise there, nore the fact they had top scores human breeding will concentrate a trait better then nature .... imagine if it had been a vsh to vsh

even more instring is they point to US research on VSH to claim SMR is heritable..

I can't imagine trying to find SIC in a VSH level breeder... the need to find 35 infested cells in a colony with a 1% mite load in the brood is insane that's 3500 cell to open, and even then they are saying it highly varibuil. Most VSH breeders are TF the mite levels are that low, in fact many need to maintain "package" bees as mite farms so they can seed colonies with mites to get levels up enuf to test
the US Method of scoring VSH has long stood the test of time, proving very repeatable to the point a colony only has to be scored ONCE !!
150 cells, done! on to the next hive
http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com/static...018pdf.pdf?token=fqamMIGHMrHdV8peu3JBcsBD6yM=

I do think its funny they push all this extra work with no backing for it, and still reference [31] https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13592-015-0413-7

witch showed breeder selection by a simple end of season mite count was an effective way to select for VSH
The selection we used (i.e., finding colonies with low end-of-season mite infestations) proved to be useful in lieu of the technically difficult measurements (i.e., measuring rates of hygienic removal of mite-infested brood or percentages of reproducing mites) needed to directly select for high expression of VSH. The technical methods are not well suited for use by commercial bee breeders. Our production of Pol-line honey bee stock using industry-appropriate methods may encourage adoption and further selection of mite-resistant bees with desirable beekeeping characteristics.
 

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Insightful feedback, MSL. I suppose I always assume that research funding entreaties are woven into every publication insofar as this seems to be the primary means that researchers are judged by their institution- namely amount of funding they can secure.

That said, it seems that all contemporary research continues to point back to the simple but fundamental idea that low relative mite population growth irrespective of mechanism(s) is the primary factor we should focus on in TF breeding programs (not to exclude others).

Certainly, the approach outlined inthe Danka study of selecting colonies, "that had low mite infestations and large populations of adult bees" is easy enough to implement, at least as a concept.

Seems to underscore the distinction between resistance and tolerance that underlies the breeding efforts in so many flora and fauna.
 

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Great article, SP. Thank you for sharing. A few things I found interesting:

The mite infestation measurements BINF1-3 (mid of August) were highly repeatable, with correlation ranging from over 0.50 to 0.85.

Difficulties in associating hygienic behavior with mite infestation may also arise from the fact that bees selectively remove brood infested with mites carrying DWV, while mites with low viral loads could be neglected.

Concerning the mite infestation traits BINFa and MPG, our results suggested that BINFa should be preferred over MPG because of higher repeatability and higher correlations to behavioral traits.

BINFa was included because this was clearly independent from NMF, but MPG was not.

… in honeybee breeding for Varroa resistance we face the choice from parameters that are easy to measure, but provide a low contribution to the breeding objective (because of low heritability or low genetic correlation with objective traits), and traits that are tedious to measure, but contribute more (because of high heritability or high genetic correlation).

To select for mite infestation we suggest three traits, mite infestation in summer adjusted for initial mite infestation in spring by regression, exponential mite population growth in summer and brood infestation. Together these traits can give a reliable picture of resistance to mite population development. Repeated measurement of mite infestation is strongly recommended as it enables a more accurate estimate of mite population growth.
 

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The Achilles heel of these type measurements is that they don't account for mite bomb colony that disperses huge numbers of mites into any colony that robs them. You can only get valid measurements when colonies about to be overwhelmed with mites are removed from the area. Keep a close eye on all colonies and remove the varroa super producers.
 
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