and you had to walk up hill both ways to school in the snow?Back when typical winter losses in Wisconsin were 1% or less, even in completely uninsulated hives.
link says aug 19Do you have a date on that paper?
yep, and there is the rub... the mites will adapt to the bees adaption faster then the bees can adapt.the poppulation with the shortest gestation period changes the fastest.
Apistan restiance shows us the problem... its a different mutation in the EU, UK, and the US... meaning in each case it started with 1 mite in one hive and then spread fast across vast areas.. and in each case the mites found a diffrent way to adapt......
the outher rub is mites are clonal, so they don't lose there adaption in out cross
COVD shows us the same pattern..... we get on it and start screening in mass and bang, here is delta that is conagus before symptoms start ... get 60% of the vorld vaxed and here comes Omicron and its 4X higher break threw rate
to swing back to the org question....
#1 what needs to happen is a way to take away the reproductive advantage of killing a hive, but how?
if you get one mutated mite that can over come the defences (cemical or bee baised) in a hive and soon the hive is full of them... then the hive gets weak and robbed and those mites and now in 30+ hives, next year its 900 hives, then 27,000 hives...
if you have one hive with a queen with genetics that can fight the mites and she swams maybe 2x... to make it worse what if the hive level restance was form the drone side of say 3 drones she mated with... that means her drones don't carry it, and any given daughter queens have a 90% chance on not inheriting... it this is an efect randy O feels he is fighting in his program
#2 given the above its easy to see the need for grafting off breeders and requeening with there offspring, to fight the mites adaption, you have to beat them at propagation