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The Effect of New Zealand Kanuka, Manuka and Clover Honeys on Bacterial Growth Dynamics and Cellular Morphology Varies According to the Species
Here we have used a range of concentrations of clover honey and a suite of manuka and kanuka honeys from known geographical locations, and for which the floral source and concentration of methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide potential were defined, to determine their effect on growth and cellular morphology of four bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial honey produced from the Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) plant from New Zealand has many features that make it a promising therapy for wound care. Manuka honey is broad in spectrum and able to inhibit a diverse range of bacterial and yeast pathogens, and is equally effective against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Honey has several antibacterial features that are distinct from classical antibiotics, including high osmolarity, low pH, and the generation of hydrogen peroxide by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase [14]. Some honeys also contain levels of bee defensin-1 that are sufficient to inhibit growth of bacteria [15], [16]. Active manuka honey contains high levels of the reactive dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MGO) [17], [18], which forms non-enzymatically from nectar-derived dihydroxyacetone (DHA) during ripening.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055898
 

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this is very interesting and I'm interested if anyone knows whether the antibiotic activity is due to the pollen that might be in raw honey from these various sources or whether a manuka honey exposed to ultra filtration to remove all pollen would still be effective. Secondly has anyone tested honeys from different sources in the USA? I'm a plant pathologist and although I don't work with human pathogens I would be interested in compounds that have antibacterial activity.
 
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