The down and dirty is no closer than 100'. Farther away is better up to around 1/2 mile. A lot depends on other available habitat. 12' up in a tree, facing south, and IN THE SHADE! The first two are not critical but the shade part is. Even though we put our hives in direct sun, the bees choose locations that are shaded. I realized how important this is this past season. Placed a bunch of traps where they were convenient for me and in the sun. Out of seven traps set, only the one 15' up in a tree and shaded had a swarm move in.
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