You can try but don't count on success. I've never had success with all brand new equipment. Bees seem to really like the smell of old comb or a box that's been previously occupied. It will have no effect on any nearby hives, unless they are swarming. However, considering the equipment is new review the beginning of my post.
Can't hurt. Might save you a swarm from your own hive. Could you pull a frame of comb from your hive and put it in the "trap" hive? I don't mean one that is full of brood/eggs. But perhaps one that has some pollen and honey. Just hit the frame hard on top of the box that it came from to get all of the house bees off before putting it in a trap hive.
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