I've had some hives robbed-out the past couple of years - the first time that I saw it I thought my hive had died of Nosema because the front of the hive was all spotted with bee feces (I had been away for a couple of weeks, so I didn't see the robbing itself) - the hives are in a rural area that always has a significant dearth in Summer, so I always put robbing screens on in advance, but sometimes to no avail. Since that first robbing incident, I've come to realize that spotting at the front is a sign that the hive has been robbed - it's almost as if the robbers defecate before entiering the hive so that they have more room in their bodies to hold robbed honey. I regularly treat my bees for Nosema, so I don't think it's an issue for them - or maybe it's that the robbers coming in have Nosema? Of course, I understand that it's important to keep strong hives to protect against robbing, and to close-down entrances ASAP when robbing is recognized. Does anyone have any thoughts on this robbing/ spotting observation?