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To begin with I will start by saying yes, I know the process well and have done many already. What i'm looking for is some input on a specific matter. At what time of the season do most beekeepers quit making NUC's to winter through with. More specifically at what time of the year can you make a NUC that will/should manage to get through the winter (IN A NUC 5 Frame Double Deep) without having to pull frames and do multiple manipulations to keep them from swarming.
 

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The answer is going to be a local one. In my area caged queen-introduced nucs can be made into August, but we have Eucalyptus bloom in December. The cut-off in September is because drones to mate with the new queens become unreliable or unavailable. My advice is completely irrelevant to your situation.

Your landscape is going to have fall Ragweed and Erigeron (Aster daisy). How much and how reliable ? My guess is that even with Sub and unlimited syrup you will have a no-go date in July.

You are going to need to experiment, and be able to predict the fall and winter weather in advance.

My general point is that you become a better beekeeper by experimentation.
 

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I make mine up just after the blackberry flow (use leftover bees) in July. I am a small time guy and first year I got all 5 through winter, second year I got 0 to make it.
 

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JW has it right - it is a function of how much nectar/pollen flow you have left, and how much honey & pollen stores your bees will need. Talk to the older beek's in your area, paying attention to the local weather anomalies their bee yards are situated in - a few miles can make a huge difference. When in doubt, play conservative.

The breed of bees plays some role, too. Russians cluster in frighteningly small winter clusters, and use stores so small that other races would never make it. They don't build up in time for Almonds. You could probably make up nucs with them a few weeks, maybe even a month later than Italians. Carniolans winter smaller than Italians, but build up earlier than Russians. I don't know how late I'd make up nucs with them - ask Dr. Susan Cobey. AMM's (German Black bees) are legendary for their ability to keep foraging long into the cold months, to build up early, to make lots of honey, and to sting you like Africanized bees. They could probably be made into nucs later than Italians.

Also, learn to look for "winter hints" - some plants bloom and seed early because it was a dry year, others do in anticipation of a cold winter. The mice store up more food and pack more insulation before cold winters. Some birds head south earlier before colder winters. This gift - "reading" the weather before it comes - makes for a very successful beekeeper. I'm not saying it comes easy....
 

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The AMM are improving in Europe by exchanging breeder stock within a group of beeks there. They are on the net the last time I searched.
And why would you want to read the weather when all I have to do is press a button to get instant weather updates?
Definitely look at the plants and birds though. They know what they are doing for their survival too. The bees know how to
pack for the harsh winter also so don't collect too much Fall honey.
 

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Here in eastern NY (Champlain Valley) late June through mid July with cells and up to the first week of August with a laying queen. So much depends on the late summer flow, how strong the nucs is and how much honey/pollen you can start it with. I've had success with as little as four frame nucs (not this year though) as well as 8 and 10 frame sized colonies.
 
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