Forgive me if this is obvious, but do yall know if I can put my hive like this? -->
Inner cover (no upper entrance)
Brood box (10 frames of honey,pollen,brood)
The reason I am asking is the bees keep PACKING IN the pollen and honey in the brood box. They seem like they are refusing to place anything in the super. The super has drawn foundation and is in great condition. Every space the queen has is being filled with pollen and honey. They have not gotten any feed by me.
Thanks for the advice yall!
One problem is that any drones hatched in the upper will have no way out. You would likely be better off the other way around, and providing an upper entrance (if you are going to use the excluder.) for the super. Try putting one of the outer (honey) frames from the brood box up in the middle. You can shift the super back about 1/2 inch which will leave them an upper entrance, & cover most of it with a small stick about the size of an entrance reducer. Many would say you would be better off with no excluder at all.
With the hive configuration you recommend, the bees will pack the box on the bottom board with pollen. They will still put the incoming nectar in the brood box above the excluder.
I assume you do not want to make another brood chamber, or you would just add the box to the top and let the queen have access to it to lay. Once there is brood above an excluder the bees readily pass back and forth through it.
If you do not want another brood chamber your best solution is the one Colobee recommends. Using a frame of honey or nectar will often draw the bees through the excluder. It doesn't work all of the time, but with honey bees what does? If the brood nest is packed with nectar/pollen and you remove the excluder the queen will move up and lay in the super before the nectar can fill the cells. To keep the comb clean for the surplus honey you need to use an excluder.
I recommend using 2 brood chambers, even if one is just a medium. When there is brood in both boxes, and they are divided by an excluder when you add the surplus supers, I think you will not have a problem with bees not passing through it to store nectar above.
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