You can use all the same if you want. I will give you my reasons. First "deep" hive bodies are pretty standard for the brood chamber. So if you buy nucs you will probably get deep frames. A deep box doesn't cost that much more than a medium. A deep frame doesn't cost that much more than a medium. It takes three medium boxes to have about the same laying area as two deep boxes. So you have to buy more boxes, frames and foundation.
So why not use all deeps? Some places they do, but for most of the year deeps only have mostly brood, some pollen and some honey. So they are light. Honey supers on the other hand have only honey. My full mediums are 50 lbs. Taking these off of a hive chest high tall hive will cause you to notice the weight. Deeps would be much worse.
So I use deeps for brood since I don't lift them when they are full of honey. I use mediums for honey since they are more manageable when they are full of honey.
So I have deeps for brood and mediums for honey. I will treat my hives if they need it, so having all of my honey supers different from my brood boxes means that I won't be storing honey in a box that has been on the hive when treatments have been on.
If you don't plan to treat your hives and the extra cost for some boxes and frames doesn't bother you, then using all mediums makes sense.
Now we have 8 frame versions of the boxes that I talked about above. So you have a lot of choices. Different people like different box sizes for various reasons. So box makers aim to please everyone. You will need to decide what you want to do.
If I was starting over, I would just buy deeps for the first year. After the second year when I extracted the honey from those heavy deeps (that now have great drawn comb since they were on during the honey flow), I would use those deeps for brood boxes to expand and then buy mediums for honey.
All my boxes are full size and 10 frames. It allowes me to switch and change at will ( eg move frames from brood to honey)
In many ways I feel this is an easy system as it is not necessary to have different frames and boxes and foundation - BUT - I made this decision 30 plus years ago.
If I had my time again I would probably got for full size but 8 frames.
As I don't want to change I have learned to manage bt taking frame by frame out and stack them into an empty box on a wheel borrow and to lift I have the help of my wive. It works but it is a little slower.
When you make your choice when you are 30 think of the times when you are not as strong anymore.
Been there and still doing that... That's got to be about the biggest mistake I ever made beekeeping!
I have empty boxes, but not enough frames, or I have frames and no boxes to put them in. Than, I want to move frames around at the yard, and I cant due to size differences.
If you love puzzles and always being out of things, go with many different sizes! You almost need an inventory control software to keep track of things!
I have five sizes and don't find it much more complex than the five sizes of fingers on my hands. If you have untrained or inexperienced labor helping you it becomes more of a problem.
I don't believe in small frames for brood or deeper boxes for the bulk of the honey crop. I do draw out deeper frames as honey supers and get help to lift them.
I take the few shallows I have to one apiary only, mediums make up the bulk of the honey crop. I have both deep and jumbo frames, and Langstroth and Brother Adam hives for the brood chambers and also isolate where they are used to minimize mixups.
for a beginner, I remember thinking I need some of them all. I have grown older, weaker, and smarter. I stick with 2 sizes, deeps for brood, and mediums for honey. if I keep getting older and smarter, I might even go down to shallows for honey, but I keep deeps for brood, only to over winter in.
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