The term “organophosphate” (OP) is often used in the scientific and lay press to describe a large chemical class of insecticides and chemical warfare agents. OP insecticides, which include malathion and chlorpyrifos, among others, are among the most widely used agrochemicals for the control of insect pests in the world. Approximately 427 tons of OP insecticides were used for vector control in 2003–2005, and > 36.5 million tons were used in agri culture in the United States in 2000.
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide, which may be applied at different times during the growing season to control various types of pests. Indeed, this appears to be reflected in the air concentrations for both 2006 and 2007, where both peaks and valleys are present in the air concentration trends. In 2006, there are significant peaks in air concentrations both in late April-early May and again in August. In 2007, there is a more gradual increase in the spring and a slightly earlier summer peak. Overall, the air concentrations in 2007 are somewhat lower than those in 2006.
Both sampling systems show a curious increase in air concentrations during late October-early November, well after the traditional growing period. Temperatures did not rise drastically during this time, discounting a temperature-based increase, which would also have been apparent in some of the other pesticides’ air concentrations during this period. It is not clear what caused this late concentration peak for chlorpyrifos.
Well, who can argue w/ that? I just can't imagine Aaron M. saying that out loud.One guy told me it was God's will the bees are gone.
Are you saying the bees that have disappeared from CCD hives are simply on the ground right outside the hives? Hard to believe that researchers and beekeepers have all failed to look down all this time.Like I said put 50 or 60 doubles on large cement slab from the begining of spring untill after frost & tell me what you see!
Posting a large amount of dead bees will be a great start.
We conducted a long-term investigation to ascertain effects on honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies during and after exposure to flowering canola, Brassica napus variety Hyola 420, grown from clothianidin-treated seed. Colonies were placed in the middle of 1-ha clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields for 3 wk during bloom, and thereafter they were moved to a fall apiary.
Adult Mortality. Colony adult mortality was assessed using a Gary dead bee trap (DBT) (Gary 1960) or a 1- by 2-m white sheet placed on the ground extending out from the hive entrance (Faucon et al. 2005). One randomly selected colony at each field was fitted with a DBT, whereas the entrance sheet method was used for the remaining three (eight DBT and 24 entrance sheets total for the experiment). Dead workers and drones were collected from DBT or entrance sheets and counted approximately every 7 d from Day 0 to Day 130.
Overall, we found no differences between colonies from clothianidin-treated and control fields. Colonies in clothianidin-treated fields gained as much weight and yielded as much honey as those in control fields.
G. CHRISTOPHER CUTLER AND CYNTHIA D. SCOTT-DUPREE. 2007. Exposure to Clothianidin Seed-Treated Canola Has No Long-Term Impact on Honey Bees