Not in my experience - I have at least 30 hives within 50 feet of the house, and of those maybe 8-10 (the ones I experiment with most) are within 10 feet. I do have some likely looking open sheds which you'd think would be attractive as a home, but my girls appear to be happy enough with the hives I supply for them.
I did have a wasp nest up in the roof space two years ago, but I can hardly blame the bees for that.
An established hive isn't going to just abandon its hive and move to your attic because it is better digs. But a homeless swarm looking for a home might think your attic is a great place to put down roots.
I have a feral hive in a tree approximately 60 feet from my house and only 20 feet from my neighbor, that has been there for 15 years. In all that time I know of only 3 swarms, all of which were caught
I am sure that there have been a lot more swarms than just those three that I know of but neither my neighbor or myself have bees in our houses.
I have several other neighbors close, I live in town, and I do not know of anyone having bees in there house.
That is not saying that they won't in the future, but I do not know of any problems.
I have heard that one of the common places for swarms to go in our area is in the posts that hold up decks. A lot of the newer houses have a decorative cover that is 12" square around a 4x4 beam and the bees seem to like this space I suspect this space is similar to a tree and since it is decorative it is not well sealed.
When I was a kid we had a swarm move into the wall of our kitchen. It was quite exciting. A neighbor beekeeper trapped it out. I wish I knew the details but all I remember is the box he put in our front lawn. He passed a few years ago. His bees were on our property, about a half-mile from our house and I don't know of any other neighbors who kept bees. Ate a lot of his honey on pancakes and corn bread back then.
I keep a couple swarm traps around my house just in case my backyard hives swarm. Got one last year from my hives and also caught an incoming swarm from who knows where. It's just good neighborliness to keep swarm traps out if you keep bees. I am sure my neighbors don't want my bees in their homes.
A friend had his panties in a wad when he had swarms in his attic 2 years in a row. His beek neighbor apologized and removed them. Don’t know if it was the neighbor’s fault, but I expect to be blamed if it happens to my neighbors.
If your house is exposed with openings a swarm may move in. I was puting new siding on my house when a swarm moved in. Thankfully it was easy to get them out before they set up shop, that swarm was how I got into beekeeping. No swarms since we put new siding on. None of my neighbors kept bees so these came from who knows where, so if you have a good space for bees they will find it whether or not you have bees nearby.
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