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Quick question:

How exactly do bees ventilate in the winter? Do they fan the air, or is it completely passive?

This is in regards to very low temperatures, well below 0C (32F).

Thanks.
 

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Bees don't ventilate in the winter.
The normal physical processes around the bee cluster are the "ventilation".
 

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When temps are very cold, bees cluster tightly together and generate heat by vibrating muscles. This requires energy from honey which results in a lot of water vapor being released. With cold hive walls and very high humidity warm air rising from the cluster, moisture can condense onto the top and sides of the interior of the hive. This can be either a boon or a detriment depending on whether or not the bees need water. If very high levels of condensation build up, the bees can have cold water dripping into the cluster which is very stressful. Bees do not fan to move air in winter, but convection processes still occur.
 
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