100 yards away (not downrange!!!!) and you should be fine. If they were closer, during a dearth they could get testy. Are you looking at a professional range with daily fire or personal with fire 2-3 times a week max?
I'm a Class 3 firearms wholesaler and we do A LOT of shooting at our ranch, where the majority of our hives are. We frequently shoot belt-fed machineguns within 100 yards of the bee yard and it does not seem to bother them at all. We also have a duck marsh right below the bee yard and we go through cases of shotgun shells down there every duck season - doesn't bother the wintering hives a bit.
My home hives are about 300 yards or so from a gun range without any problems. Range is used for qualifying by local law enforcement, monthly 3-gun matches, testing for carry permits, and lots of general shooting.
I was under the impression that Bees do not "hear" sounds like we do but can perceive vibrations. I frequently weed-wack and mow in front of my hives and don't have a problem. They do run into me when I venture into their flight path but it seems to be unintentional on their part. So, I am guessing that shooting near a hive probably isn't going to be a problem.
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