And what are you up to the next 18 years?
Yes, Juhani Lunden, I have read that in reality the true/pure German black bees are actually a gentle bee. Not aggressive as what people commonly believe. I have suspected that the German black bees have gotten this bad reputation from misidentification of Spanish Black bees in the Southeastern US, that is if it is true what I suspect, that indeed it was the Spanish black bees that were the dominant subspecies in the Southeastern US before the introduction of the Italian bees.Pure Apis mellifera mellifera is a very calm bee, which has one an easy to notice distinctive quality: it runs like honey towards the bottom bar of the frame. When holding one long enough, they drop of. The bees on the video are most certainly not mellifera mellifera bees, which don´t have so wide white stripes.One another sign in the structure of the real black bee is the end of abdomen which is blunt (versus sharp).
In this video (German languge) various "black bees" are considered whether they are pure or not. In this era of false information I consider the man in the video, Kai-Michael Engfer, very informative about the subject Apis mellifera mellifera, genuine black bee of Europe. There are some nice pictures, for instance about the amount and colour of the stripes. And as he notices the purity can be determined from the wing veins.
The source of information he recommended: https://www.nordbiene.de/
And once again: there is no such race as German black bee. German black bee is the name for a strain of black looking bees in US.
This is a great website, Juhani. The auto-translate function works very well too. There is quite a lot of good bee race information on the website beyond that of AMM.
The bacteriophages have "phage lysins" that cut through endospores. AFB has endospores which make it hard to treat with antibiotics, but these bacteriophages might have something better than antibiotics that beekeepers use to treat AFB.Bacteriophages (Viruses that eat bacteria and archaea) might be a good treatment instead of antibiotics. You could keep the hive free of chemicals, like antibiotics, and so sell uncontaminated honey. People are working on phage treatment for American Foulbrood from what I read on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phage_therapy#Other_animals Viruses are not always bad.
I dunno, they look like regular old bees to me? I've had many black queens. Why does any of it matter? If they are easier to keep alive I'll take a couple of queens off your hands 😜
I have thought about that, too! Similar to "phenotype" verses "genotype". But if I understand you correctly with the crossbreeding of the different subspecies of honeybees, one subspecies can take certain genes or traits from another subspecies, yet retain the majority of the genetic make-up of its own subspecies. Even though it has certain traits of another subspecies, those traits would be superficial and only a few genes, but still may be very noticeable traits to us, such as dark coloration or light coloration. Tardigrades are known to steal genes from other species.After all the crossbreeding of many different strains of bees imported into the US, only genome typing can tell the ancestry of a bee.
The way gene crossing works, after a few generations a golden bee could be a nearly 'pure' Caucasian or Russian. And the opposite, a black bee could be almost entirely Italian in every other trait than color. Same with wing conformation.
That is nice! Where in southern Spain were you? You might have had a mixture of Apis mellifera intermissa. There are some A. m. intermissa mixture in the southern tip of Spain.I have seen Spanish bees in Southern Spain. They are large and very aggressive as a hybrid that became its own subspecies. Who knows if any traits survived after all this time. I personally wouldn’t want to manage them. Certainly not for hobby breaking.
Well, I don't think we have a typical suite of characteristics. Our bees here are a mixture of different "suites of characteristics" from what I have seen and can tell. Many I have seen come with a "suite of characteristics" that Italian bees are said to have and others come with a "suite of characteristics" of Carniolan bees (I could easily be misidentifying for similar subspecies such as Ukrainian and Carpathian since they share many characteristics.).My bees tend dark, brown to black with no yellow bees. Some have blunt abdomens and some narrower and sharply pointed, almost wasp-like. No idea what the race these bees might be, they were a swarm. But very docile. No bee suit, just a veil, long sleeve shirt and thin gloves.
If you are seeing a typical suite of characteristics, it's probably because that is what resulted from the mix of bees in your neighborhood going back many years. Maybe Spanish, German, Russian, plus whatever. If they make honey and don't sting the neighbors, they are all good. It would be fun though to get some university lab to gene-type them, just to know.
Okay. Eduardo Gomez's Spanish Black bees have thicker bands and smaller, rounder abdomens than other typical Spanish Black bees. It makes them more similar in general appearance to our commonly raised Carniolans. Here is a video of more obviously thin banded Spanish Black bees to compare: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ak2l5A3JzigI dunno, they look like regular old bees to me? I've had many black queens. Why does any of it matter? If they are easier to keep alive I'll take a couple of queens off your hands ��