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Evolution of Self-Organized Task Specialization in Robot Swarms
Division of labor is ubiquitous in biological systems, as evidenced by various forms of complex task specialization observed in both animal societies and multicellular organisms. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which division of labor first evolved remains enigmatic, as it requires the simultaneous co-occurrence of several complex traits to achieve the required degree of coordination. Recently, evolutionary swarm robotics has emerged as an excellent test bed to study the evolution of coordinated group-level behavior. Here we use this framework for the first time to study the evolutionary origin of behavioral task specialization among groups of identical robots. The scenario we study involves an advanced form of division of labor, common in insect societies and known as “task partitioning”, whereby two sets of tasks have to be carried out in sequence by different individuals. Our results show that task partitioning is favored whenever the environment has features that, when exploited, reduce switching costs and increase the net efficiency of the group, and that an optimal mix of task specialists is achieved most readily when the behavioral repertoires aimed at carrying out the different subtasks are available as pre-adapted building blocks. Nevertheless, we also show for the first time that self-organized task specialization could be evolved entirely from scratch, starting only from basic, low-level behavioral primitives, using a nature-inspired evolutionary method known as Grammatical Evolution. Remarkably, division of labor was achieved merely by selecting on overall group performance, and without providing any prior information on how the global object retrieval task was best divided into smaller subtasks. We discuss the potential of our method for engineering adaptively behaving robot swarms and interpret our results in relation to the likely path that nature took to evolve complex sociality and task specialization.
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004273
 

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Simple matter of a xy system/crawling/climbing robot that can operate within bee space. Targeting and frying varroa with a Zazer beam or hot needle point or something. It could use a thermal/laser imager and search and destory targets. Perhaps a small robot that can move around the inside of the hive like a roomba. Contact roomba and tell them there`s millions of dollars to be made and prestige and to make and sell them. Problem solved. Ask a Roomba to help with the bees. Elegant solution if they take up the challenge.

Or you could just use Russian bees :D
Wood
 
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