It is a genetic defect and no they cannot see normally. I have also seen one with orange eyes once. It is actually well documented (orange or yellow pigmentation). I saw a presentation once it was at a club meeting or field day. As I recall the scientist actually inbred with that genetic result to make it more prevalent through AI just to prove it was genetic. (Back in the old days before genome projects) Very fascinating! If I ever see another I will grab him and take pictures like you. It only happens in drones.
It appears your queen is heterozgous for the mutation, meaning she carries one normal allele and one mutated allele for what looks like it may be the chartreuse color mutation. Most visible mutations like this are seen in drones because they are haploid, but you have a fun case where the mutation occurred in the queen. The queen should appear normal, but half of her drones should express the mutation. Generally the lighter the eye color, the less they can see, white being one of the worst. They can fly and navigate and the trait can actually be intensified to be expressed directly in queens and workers. In my experience, there are other issues that go along with the mutation, so a colony of yellow eyed workers is not very prolific. Great photos and fun to see!
A forum community dedicated to beekeeping, bee owners and enthusiasts. Come join the discussion about breeding, honey production, health, behavior, hives, housing, adopting, care, classifieds, and more!