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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
I leave the translation of my latest post on my blog. As the translation was done automatically from Portuguese to English via google translator there may be errors for which I ask your understanding. If you wish to comment, I'm grateful.

"current perspectives on the immune system in insects and their vaccination

The components of the Immune System
In mammals, the immune system (SI) is composed of two components, one inborn and the other acquired. Both recognize invading microorganisms as non-own, and activate responses to eliminate them. And in insects what is the architecture of your immune system? In fundamental aspects the mechanisms of SI response in insects is similar to that of mammals.

"Infectious agents threaten any organism. Therefore, mammals and insects have developed a complex network of cells and humoral factors called the immune system capable of controlling and eliminating pathogens. Immunity varies among different groups of animals, but always contains an innate immune system that can act quickly and often effectively against a wide range of distinct pathogens (ie, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotic parasites). In mammals and insects, communication between the regulation of cells of the immune system is performed by cytokines that orchestrate defense against invaders. The greatest challenge to recognize and combat pathogens is the same for any host. In insects and mammals, pathogens are recognized as non-pathogenic by pathogen recognition. In addition, similar pathogen recognition receptors and signaling pathways activate the immune response in insects and mammals. "(In https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18511854)

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The paradigm shift and the possibilities of vaccination of insects
However, until recently, the scientific community lacked robust evidence that insects could construct the acquired / non-innate component of their IS. Insects were thought to have only an innate immune system, and for this reason some therapies, eg. the vaccination of insects against certain diseases was not the subject of study. However, as Bob Dylan said, "times are changing" and more and more evidence is emerging that insects also build the acquired component of their immune system. This change of scientific paradigm opens the field to more fundamental research, while opening avenues to applied research, such as research into the creation of vaccines for certain insects that are beneficial to us, and of course I am thinking here about bees.

"Recent discoveries provided evidence for the existence of
acquired non-vertebrate immunity. […] This is
contrary to the paradigm that only vertebrates manifest
the two forms of immune mechanism; [...] We think that both forms of immunity are
and co-evolved in response to
lifestyle, cost-benefit and symbiosis versus
parasitism. However, different species have
different immunological solutions that are not necessarily
genetically related but have a similar general function
allowing individuals to learn from the experience of their own immune systems; the survival of the species depends on
acquired immune experience of their individuals. "(in http://www.weizmann.ac.il/immunolog...ss_an_acquired_immune_system_of_some_sort.pdf)

Applied research in the case of bees
As I have previously published, some specific research is analyzing the mechanisms of transmission of information acquired by the IS of the queen bee to its offspring. The results for now are promising and the path is being made.

"The immune system of insects can recognize specific pathogens and stimulate offspring immunity. The high specificity of transgenerational immunization can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors to oocyte development. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we have established that the vitellogenin protein present in the insect egg yolk is the carrier of immunological elicitors. Using the bee, Apis mellifera, we demonstrated with microscopy and [?] That vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both the larva of Paenibacillus - the gram-positive bacterium causing the American foulbrood disease - and Escherichia coli representing gram-negative bacteria. [...] These experiments identify vitellogenin, widely present in oviparous species, as the carrier of immunological signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for transgenerational immunity in insects and a previously unknown role for vitellogenin. "(In https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005015)

The authors of this last article are working on the American foulbrood vaccine. I hope they get to good results and that these good results encourage and light the way for others. Vaccination is a tremendously effective tool in the fight against pathogens in species that are organized in collective societies with a large number of individuals sharing the same space, as is the case of the honey bees we work with."
 

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thanks,
Mother nature gets smarter and smarter each day.

If vitellogenin can impart immunity, has the mite/virus developed the ability to transmit tolerance through vitellogenin as well ?
For every tit there is a tat.
 

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Discussion Starter · #5 ·
>> For every tit there is a tat.

As in all the vaccines that exist for us. It was not this specter / possibility that prevented the investigation on vaccines, its production and above all the beneficial effects that its use brought and brings to the whole human society.

In my country we have a saying: while the stick goes and return the back does not suffer.
 
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