Off Topic Questions. What is the opposite of Ice Age? What "Age" are we in now?
I would go with the Anthropocene epoch...Off Topic Questions. What is the opposite of Ice Age? What "Age" are we in now?
The whole thread is about the effect climate change could have on beekeeping. Some doubt whether humans could possibly affect climate. I pointed out that the impact of humans on the earth has been profound and overwhelming. Therefore, there is ample reason to suspect that we could have a profound effect on weather, climate, natural processes. It may be difficult to prove, but the evidence is very strong, as indicated by the study of Thoreau's notes compared to the presence in Massachusetts.My comment was about climate change (most were of the thinking of global warming). Not if man has polluted the environment, displaced or eliminated certain species.
This is a faith-based statement. There are plenty of ways that life could be extinguished on the planet. Nuclear catastrophe, for openers. Even a sufficiently large meteor or comet could set life back two billion years to nothing more than single celled germs living in hot mud on the bottom of the oceanThe earth goes through these cycles. Life adapts and evolves. It happened before humans showed up and it'll still be happening after we're gone.
Multiple stressors on biotic interactions: how climate change and alien species interact to affect pollination. Biol. Rev. (2010), 85, pp. 777–795.At least three consequences of climate change may provide
social and generalist pollinators (such as Apis spp. and Bombus spp.) with an advantage in inter-specific competition with solitary or specialised pollinators. Firstly, social domesticated pollinators, notably Apis mellifera, are widespread, have long foraging seasons and are likely to be phenologically more flexible than some solitary, especially univoltine, species, which are often restricted to narrow activity windows (Wcislo & Cane, 1996). Consequently, social generalists may suffer less from temporal mismatches and so can extend their active season and build up and maintain populations more easily than solitary and more specialised pollinators.
Secondly, social and generalist pollinators often have broader diets due to extended flight season and range of worker body sizes (e.g. Bombus spp.; Goulson, 2003) and hence are less likely to experience complete temporal and spatial mismatches with their food plants than diet specialists. Thirdly, Apis and Bombus species tend to do relatively well in environments with spatially variable resource patches as longer flight ranges (Greenleaf et al., 2007) and recruitment behaviour (Apis spp.) allow much more efficient exploitation of forage (Steffan- Dewenter & Kuhn, 2003; Westphal, Steffan-Dewenter & Tscharntke, 2006). In addition, the large amount of workers of social bee colonies enables optimisation of egg production and food intake (Stevens, Hogendoorn & Schwarz, 2007).
Taken together, efficient forage, predictable food intake and parental care enhances reproductive fitness of social bees compared to solitary insects (e.g. Smith, Weislo & O’Donnell, 2003). Further, the ability to store food reserves allows the colony to survive periods of inclement weather or periods of sparse floral reward availability. Consequently, climate change and the predicted increased variability in precipitation and evapotranspiration (Christensen et al., 2007) will affect domesticated social generalist bees and thus most alien pollinators much less than most of the solitary specialist predominantly native pollinators
Elena Moser, May 10, 2013. Nosema ceranae climate and seasonal prevalence in honeybees in HawaiiRecent research suggests that N. ceranae is better able to withstand warmer
climates than its counterpart, N. apis, and has increased prevalence when temperatures
increase (Higes et al., 2013; Villa, 2013). This suggests that N. ceranae infection may be
influenced by the month and thus follow a seasonal trend as climate and temperatures
change as seen in a previous study (Villa, 2013).
Le Conte, Y., & Navajas, M. (2008) Climate change: impact on honeybee populations and diseases. Revue scientifique et technique 27: 499-510.Widespread mortality in the Apis mellifera honey bee worldwide aptly demonstrates the fragility of this species, whose survival relies on an increasingly hostile environment. The reasons given to explain this phenomenon include pesticide use, new diseases, stress and a combination of these factors. As a result, climate change will shift the balance between the honey bee, its plant environment and its diseases. The honey bee has shown a great capacity to colonise widely diverse environments and its genetic variability should enable it to adapt to such climate change. However, the fear is that climate-induced stress will in future compound the various factors already endangering the species in certain regions of the world.
Part of the lack of concern is that there is much, much more oxygen in the atmosphere and changes in its amount have little or no effect. The amount of CO2 is relatively small, and even increases of parts per million (0.000001%) represent larger percentage changes.If burning fossil fuel is to blame for an increase in Carbon Dioxide levels, and Oxygen is consumed to burn fossil fuels , why is no one concerned, or detected, a decrease in Oxygen levels?