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Apart from the convenience to the bee keeper, and assuming everything else is equal, is there an optimum time of day to carry out OAV treatments? Morning, Noon, Afternoon, 2:30 AM?

I had heard that foragers typically do not have mites, so if they are out doing their thing, the middle of the day might be better.

Or is it better to do it while all of the foragers are in the hive to coat more clean bees that will continue to carry the residue to potentially rub against mites.

Does the capping of brood cells slow at night?

Do bees typically emerge at a particular time?

Do the mites pick any particular time to migrate into the cells?

The answer very well might be "it doesn't manner so long as you're treating consistently" But if there is say a 10% increase in exposes mites at 10 pm vs 8 am, it might be worth considering.
 

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6a 4th yr 9 colonies inc. 2 resource hives
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Morning 40 degrees or higher. Everyone is at home. I like every 3 days as far as frequency. You want to break the mite cycle. Check inspection board after 24 hours. Hammer then until low single digits. Usually do a cycle of 6.
 

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I prefer mine in the evening, right about at Sunset. This gives me enough time to hit all the hives when everyone is home. Morning would work all the same. I do feel it's best to hit them when everyone is home and have even done it in the night with a headlamp. I tend to avoid mid day.

Yet, best time to treat is when you're available. I use mite boards and treat until the count is around 2-3 after 24 hours. That has taken me up to 12 treatments on rescued hives with no record of previous treatments. My normal hives take about 6 as said above, 3 days apart.

As for your questions:
It doesn't appear that the sun's cycle has any effect on the timeline of the bees. As the hive is kept at a constant temperature the brood would be capped or uncapped depending on when the egg was laid. I've seen a lot of emerging bees in a perfect pattern from what the queen laid out - emerging all in a row. The queen seems to target these frames and immediately starts laying eggs back into those cells.

I see where you're going though - it's simply more important to do a round of OAV through an entire brood cycle (21 days for workers) than to worry about the time of day you're treating them.
 
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