I am new to beekeeping and constructed my first horizontal Langstroth hive. I am in the process of making design modifications before I build my second hive this week. I have been researching ventilation and moisture control, a lot, and feel like I am going in circles. Any help on the questions below would be greatly appreciated. Below is a side view of the lid for my current design. Based on my research I think insulating the lid is a good idea (2-inch XPS insulation). In addition, I am planning on a second layer of insulation on the top boards during winter. Please note I am in north central Oklahoma. We have hot summers (>100 oF), some years are very dry and others are humid, and we can have short periods of colder temperatures in the single digits (Fahrenheit).
Note: metal roof not shown
Lid Ventilation Holes?
Should I add two 1-inch ventilation holes (one on each end) to the lid? How big a vent is enough but is not too much? In the summer, will the ventilation holes help remove hot air or provide a path for hot air to enter? Is 2-inches of insulation enough to not have ventilation holes?
In the winter, by insulating the top of the hive, condensation should occur on the sides and bottom of hive. Is there any need to have a ventilation hole in the lid to remove any moisture build up during the winter?
Bottom Board Insulation?
Is insulating the bottom boards a good idea? The beetle trays would be removed and replaced with a PVC sheet with a one or two-inch thick piece of insulation glued to it. This will result in a screened bottom with a 5/8-inch gap to the insulation based on my current design. Will this create an area to build up unwanted junk and can this be a safe haven for bugs during the winter transition periods? Also, should there be a drainage hole in the insulated bottom board?
For those that have beetle trays in place during the winter, do you keep mineral oil in the bottom year round?