I am looking for some pointers on wrapping hives and entrance sizes for winter. As far as wrapping goes I have mostly looked at Michael Palmer's information. It seems like he leaves about half of the lower brood box exposed without wrapping. Does anyone know why this is? Also with production hives he leaves the entire lower entrance open for ventilation but the double nucs have a very tiny opening. I understand the difference in colony size and ventilation requirements but is the 1 inch or 1 1/2 inch opening at the bottom enough if there is an upper entrance? Do exposed lower entrances cause extra moisture problems in areas with deep snow? I'm wondering if the heat from the entrance causes snow to melt and run into the hive, especially if there is a landing board?