Nosema contaminated equipment
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  1. #1
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    Jan 2013
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    Shelby NC
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    Default Nosema contaminated equipment

    I have some equipment that a hive had nosema.it has been outside in the freezing weather for a year. Do i need to do anything to it or should the spores have died by now.

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  3. #2
    Join Date
    Aug 2011
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    KC, MO, USA
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    http://scientificbeekeeping.com/the-...ve-treatments/

    "Spores of N. apis can remain viable for years on the combs. A thorough study performed in New Zealand by Malone, et al (2001) tested the infectivity of spores stored either dried on glass, in sugar syrup, or in various honeys, and at different temperatures (the paper also has a thorough review of previous studies on spore longevity). In short, spores are dang tough."

    You can fumigate with glacial acetic acid.

    I don't think many worry about it. Most bees have some spores. And it's not a problem until it get too high.

    What makes you think your equipment is contaminated?

  4. #3
    Join Date
    Jun 2015
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    Rib Lake WI
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    What do you do with contaminated equipment ?

  5. #4
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    Dec 2015
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    Sawyer County,WI USA
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    How about leaving it all in the sun for a while? Is there a better natural disinfectant? I agree with everyone else in that I don't think there's too much to worry about as most bees are already carrying it.....some are adapting....some never will.

    I'd probably get rid of any comb though.


    Does it really freeze in Shelby?

  6. #5
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    Aug 2002
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    Nehawka, Nebraska USA
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    >I have some equipment that a hive had nosema.

    Based on a microscope? Based on dysentery? All confined bees get dysentery. I would not consider that proof of anything. Pretty much Nosema apis has been displaced by Nosema cerana. Nosema cerana spores die when frozen. Nosema apis spores do not.
    Michael Bush bushfarms.com/bees.htm "Everything works if you let it." ThePracticalBeekeeper.com 42y 40h 39yTF

  7. #6
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    I have no reason to believe that Nosema C. spores re killed by frost.

    If your equipment is really contaminated with Nosema spores, irradiation is the best cure.

    Crazy Roland

  8. #7
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    Quote Originally Posted by Michael Bush View Post
    Nosema cerana spores die when frozen.
    Do you have a reference you can provide? Thanks
    Horseshoe Point Honey -- http://localvahoney.com/

  9. #8
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    "Resistance of Nosema ceranae to different exposure conditions has been evaluated by using Sytox green and DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) to test spore viability. High thermotolerance at 60 and 35C and resistance to desiccation were observed. However, a significant decrease in viability after freezing and a rapid degeneration of spores maintained at 4C were also detected."

    http://aem.asm.org/content/75/21/6886.short

    From Randy Oliver:

    "However, Dr. Cramer reported some very interesting observations when I first supplied him with spores from my yard back in early 2008. He found that when he put the spores into the ‘fridge over the weekend, that a lot of them appeared to die (become nonviable) over the weekend! This was a great surprise, since N. apis spores are routinely frozen for storage, and spores in general survive better when chilled.

    "Dr. Cramer (unpublished data) analyzed groups of 10,000 spores. They started at about 87% viability. After only an hour in the refrigerator, viability dropped to 70%. After an hour in the freezer, viability dropped to 10-50%. At -80C (-112F) for an hour, generally only 5% of the spores survived. These are preliminary figures, and he is continuing this line of research.
    At about the same time, Dr. Ingemar Fries and Eva Forsgren in Sweden also were having troubles at infecting bees with frozen spores. They’ve quite recently (2009) published some stunning similar results (by the way, Google translate does a great job going from Swedish to English). I’ve superimposed English labels onto his graph below.

    "Effect of chilling

    "Effect of chilling on the infectiveness of nosema spores. Unchilled spores of both species (bottom bars) infected 80% of the bees with a 1000-spore dose, and 100% with a 10,000 spore dose. The infectivity of N ceranae spores dropped substantially after a week of refrigeration, and dramatically after a week of freezing. Modified from Fries (Bitidningen 107, 2009) by permission.

    "Note: The above study has important implications to beekeepers. What is tells you is that in most of the U.S., winter freezing should be enough to kill most of the spores of N. ceranae! This supports the observation of a number of commercial beekeepers that letting deadout equipment “rest” for a month at cold temperatures resulted in better colonies when restocked in the spring.

    "When I and other researchers first heard of this observation, we scratched our heads, since in general, spores of disease organisms remain viable when stored at cold temperatures (there is normally more degradation at higher temperatures). None of us would have guessed that N. ceranae spores would be so intolerant of cold storage!

    "A very interesting additional observation by Fries was that N. apis spores actually appear to become even more infective after exposure to freezing! Note in the graph above how the 1000-spore inoculum of N. apis infected 100% percent of the bees after having been frozen—a higher percentage than with unchilled or refrigerated spores! Dr. Fries is planning further investigation into this surprising phenomenon.

    "The susceptibility of N. ceranae spores to freezing may help to explain why it appears to be more of a problem in warm areas. This point should not be lost on those Midwestern beekeepers who take colonies to California for almond pollination—any deadout equipment there won’t experience the “sterilizing” effect of cold winter temperatures."--Randy Oliver, Scientific Beekeeping, http://scientificbeekeeping.com/nose...about-nothing/ under the subheading "Sterilization of Combs/Viability of Spores"
    Last edited by Michael Bush; 02-09-2016 at 06:55 AM. Reason: clarity
    Michael Bush bushfarms.com/bees.htm "Everything works if you let it." ThePracticalBeekeeper.com 42y 40h 39yTF

  10. #9
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    Very nice! Thank you.
    Horseshoe Point Honey -- http://localvahoney.com/

  11. #10
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    Yes. Thanks Michael.
    Lawrence Heafner
    15 hives; 17 years; TF for 12; Zone 7B

  12. #11
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    Also, UV light kills nosema spores: http://articles.extension.org/pages/...-nosema-spores
    Lawrence Heafner
    15 hives; 17 years; TF for 12; Zone 7B

  13. #12
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    So with temps in WI going from -20 to +30s and back down to 0 a few times should be good enuff

  14. #13
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    I must have been looking at a different part of the Elephant. We so NO effect of freezing on contaminated equipment, and a dramatic effect from a homemade decontamination vessel. Maybe there are different strains of both species of Nosema.

    Crazy Roland

  15. #14
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    Bottom line can I reuse the equipment if I paint over the outside and torch the inside and throw away the frames and comb or do I just need to toss all the equipment

  16. #15
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    From posts it seems to freezing & UV light and reuse all.
    Lawrence Heafner
    15 hives; 17 years; TF for 12; Zone 7B

  17. #16
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    >... or do I just need to toss all the equipment

    Never throw away equipment unless you had AFB in it...
    Michael Bush bushfarms.com/bees.htm "Everything works if you let it." ThePracticalBeekeeper.com 42y 40h 39yTF

  18. #17
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    Quote Originally Posted by ramdino View Post
    Bottom line can I reuse the equipment ...

    You never said why you're so certain that it was infected by nosema. Perhaps you should provide more information?
    Horseshoe Point Honey -- http://localvahoney.com/

  19. #18
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    Mar 2010
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    barry co., Michigan
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    Default Re: Nosema contaminated equipment

    Thoroughly scrape boxes and frames, render the heavily soiled wax. Then subject the equipment to acetic acid fumigation and freezing temps - should take care of the problem for both types of nosema

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