Search Beesource.com



The Thermology of Wintering Honey Bee Colonies – Support Material

FIGURE 1. - Mean of 5 years' monthly and daily (maximum and minimum) temperatures during test period at Madison, Wis.

FIGURE 1. - Mean of 5 years' monthly and daily (maximum and minimum) temperatures during test period at Madison, Wis.

FIGURE 2. - Temperature readings (º F.) and brood and bee location one comb west of center of cluster at outside temperature of 7º.

FIGURE 2. - Temperature readings (º F.) and brood and bee location one comb west of center of cluster at outside temperature of 7º.

FIGURE 3. - Enlarged view of brood area in figure 2, showing composition in relation to temperatures ( º F.).

FIGURE 3. - Enlarged view of brood area in figure 2, showing composition in relation to temperatures ( º F.).

FIGURE 4. - Seasonal location and size of cluster in check, packed, and tape colonies, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 4.-View full size image.

FIGURE 5. - Effect of outside temperature change on isotherms of check colony, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 5. - Effect of outside temperature change on isotherms of check colony, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 6. - Effect of drop in outside temperature on cluster movement of check colony, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding views at right angles from rear.

FIGURE 6.-View full size image.

FIGURE 7. - Cluster movement of check colony during day and night with little or no change in outside temperature, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 7. - Cluster movement of check colony during day and night with little or no change in outside temperature, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 8. - Temperature variation in check colony versus outside temperature. (Thermocouple 8T is three-eights inch above bottom edge of top body and 1C is one-fourth inch below top edge of center body; others are 1 inch apart in their respective directions.)

FIGURE 9. - Effect of lowering outside temperature on cluster movement of packed colony, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 10. - Effect of rise in outside temperature on cluster movement of packed colony over 2-day period, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 11. - Effect of constant outside temperature on cluster movement of packed colony, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 12. - Effect of outside night temperature on cluster movement of tape colony, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views. (No brood in parallel and rear views as it was not in the drawing plane.)

FIGURE 13. - Effect of drop in outside temperature on cluster movement of tape colony, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 14. - Effect of date on changes in 60º and 92º F. isotherm volumes for each treatment. Each line represents mean of all colonies for that treatment.

FIGURE 14.-View full size image.

FIGURE 15. - High temperatures in clusters of packed and tape colonies, showing views parallel to combs and corresponding rear views.

FIGURE 16. - Unusual cluster shapes of tape colony, showing rear views.

FIGURE 17. - Check colony placed in a refrigerator on July 30 and held at -45º F., showing how cluster changed in size. (Views parallel to combs.)

FIGURE 18. - Packed and tape colonies held in refrigerator at different temperatures for 74 and 106 days, respectively, showing how cluster changed in size. (Views parallel to combs.)

FIGURE 19. - Check colony held at -50º F., showing how hive cooled. Time is in hours after constant temperature was set. (Views parallel to combs.)

FIGURE 20. - Packed colony held in refrigerator, showing hive and refrigerator temperatures, cluster volume, and when heater was operated.

FIGURE 21. - Effect of heater on temperature and volume change in cluster of packed colony. (Views parallel to combs.)

FIGURE 22. - Change in 44º and 76º F. isotherm volumes of check (A) and packed (B) colonies in refrigerator and maximum and minimum refrigerator temperatures.

FIGURE 23. - Distribution of isotherms and cluster changes along comb of check and packed colonies in refrigerator at various dates. (Views parallel to combs.)