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The Effect of Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticides on Honey Bees in Indiana: Laboratory Studies and a Survey of Beekeepers and Pesticide Applicators

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Purdue University by

William Eugene Chaney

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

August 1988

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to express my appreciation to my major professor, and friend, Dr. Rich Edwards, for his support in my graduate work, my professional career, and my personal life. I would also like to thank Dr. Eldon Ortman for his support as head of the Department of Entomology. A special thanks to Dr. Marlin Bergman for his encouragement and to Dr. Harry Potter for his help in the survey portion of this work. My gratitude also to Dr. Virgil Anderson who made a statistical difference in my graduate education and to Dr. Tom Jordan for stepping in at the last minute.

Most importantly, I would like to thank several outstanding individuals without whom this work could have never been done. They are, in no particular order: Carl Geiger, Terry McCain, Suzie Appel, Mark Johnson, Mike Gale, Steve Mroczkiewicz and Connie Holderfield.

ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER ONE – RELATIVE TOXICITIES AND TEMPERATURE
CHAPTER TWO – PESTICIDE INTERACTIONS
CHAPTER THREE – INTERHIVE VARIABILITY