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  1. #1
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    Default Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    From Catch the buzz today. You will note that none of these are neonics!

    Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.
    Alan Harman
    Disturbing new research finds four pesticides commonly used to kill mites, insects and fungi – fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos – are also killing honey bee larvae within their hives.
    A team from Penn State and University of Florida also found that N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) – an inert, or inactive, chemical commonly used as a pesticide additive -- is highly toxic to honey bee larvae.
    “We found that four of the pesticides most commonly found in beehives kill bee larvae,” says Penn State’s Jim Frazier. “We also found that the negative effects of these pesticides are sometimes greater when the pesticides occur in combinations within the hive.
    “Since pesticide safety is judged almost entirely on adult honey bee sensitivity to individual pesticides and also does not consider mixtures of pesticides, the risk assessment process that the Environmental Protection Agency uses should be changed.”
    The research was funded by the National Honey Board, the U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Institute of Food and Agriculture-Agriculture and Food Research Initiative-Coordinated Agricultural Projects and the Foundational Award programs. Frazier says the team's previous research demonstrated that forager bees bring back to the hive an average of six different pesticides on the pollen they collect. Nurse bees use this pollen to make beebread, which they then feed to honey bee larvae.
    To examine the effects of four common pesticides – fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos – on bee larvae, the researchers reared honey bee larvae in their laboratory. They then applied the pesticides alone and in all combinations to the beebread to determine whether these insecticides and fungicides act alone or in concert to create a toxic environment for honey bee growth and development.
    The researchers also investigated the effects of NMP on honey bee larvae by adding seven concentrations of the chemical to a pollen-derived, royal jelly diet. NMP is used to dissolve pesticides into formulations that then allow the active ingredients to spread and penetrate the plant or animal surfaces onto which they are applied.
    The team fed their treated diet, containing various types and concentrations of chemicals, to the laboratory-raised bee larvae.
    “We found that mixtures of pesticides can have greater consequences for larval toxicity than one would expect from individual pesticides,” Frazier says.
    Among the four pesticides, honey bee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil. They also were negatively affected by a mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate. In addition, the larvae were sensitive to the combination of chlorothalonil with the miticide coumaphos.
    In contrast, the addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture.
    Penn State professor of entomology Chris Mullin says the pesticides may directly poison honey bee larvae or they may indirectly kill them by disrupting the beneficial fungi that are essential for nurse bees to process pollen into beebread.
    “Chronic exposure to pesticides during the early life stage of honey bees may contribute to their inadequate nutrition or direct poisoning with a resulting impact on their survival and development,” he says.
    The researchers note that fluvalinate and coumaphos are commonly used by beekeepers in their hives to control Varroa mites, and are found to persist within beehives for about five years if not removed by beekeepers.
    Chlorothalonil is a broad-spectrum agricultural fungicide that is often applied to crops in bloom when honey bees are present for pollination because it is currently deemed safe to bees. Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate in crop management.
    “Our findings suggest that the common pesticides chlorothalonil, fluvalinate, coumaphos and chlorpyrifos, individually or in mixtures, have statistically significant impacts on honey bee larval survivorship,” Mullin says.
    “This is the first study to report serious toxic effects on developing honey bee larvae of dietary pesticides at concentrations that currently occur in hives.”
    The team also found that increasing amounts of NMP corresponded to increased larval mortality, even at the lowest concentration tested.
    "There is a growing body of research that has reported a wide range of adverse effects of inactive ingredients to human health, including enhancing pesticide toxicities across the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and hormone systems,” Mullin says.
    “The bulk of synthetic organic chemicals used and released into U.S. environments are formulation ingredients like NMP, which are generally recognized as safe. They have no mandated limits on their use and their residues remain unmonitored.
    “Multi-billion pounds of these inactive ingredients overwhelm the total chemical burden from the active pesticide, drug and personal-care ingredients with which they are formulated. Among these co-formulants are surfactants and solvents of known high toxicity to fish, amphibians, honey bees and other non-target organisms. While we have found that NMP contributes to honey bee larvae mortality, the overall role of these inactive ingredients
    in pollinator decline remains to be determined.”

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    Penn state do anything on amitraz?

  3. #3
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    I see a couple of glaring inaccuracies in the report, not because of incorrect information, but because the information is presented without all the basic facts required. Chlorothalonil in particular is not normally brought back by bees in large amounts because it dries onto the leaves of plants similar to a layer of paint. Introducing it directly into the broodnest as part of the feed for young bees should be documented as occurring naturally as a result of pollen foragers returning to the colony with contaminated loads of pollen. That is not done in the report.

    Otherwise, what you see is the big reason I've been treatment free since 2005.
    DarJones - 44 years, 10 colonies (max 40), sideliner, treatment free since 2005, 11 frame broodnest, small cell

  4. #4
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    Quote Originally Posted by RAK View Post
    Penn state do anything on amitraz?
    Not to my knowledge but this study might give you pause:
    Widespread Occurrence of Chemical Residues in Beehive Matrices from Apiaries Located in Different Landscapes of Western France:

    A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC−MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28) than in the pollen (n = 23) or honey bee (n = 20) samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods.

    Complete paper here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684584/

  5. #5
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    They documented what was coming in on trapped pollen in 2008 (published in 2010)...the same team. The chart doesn't post easily...here is the study:
    http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...,d.cWc&cad=rja

    deknow
    The perils of benefactors; The blessings of parasites; Blindness blindness and sight -Joni Mitchell 'Shadows and Light'

  6. #6
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    Thanks Dean! What is striking about this list is how few hits for neonics are on it. Assures me that the largest dangers to the hives remains organo's, fungicides and beekeeper applied chemicals. I feel like many beekeepers are like bulls chasing the cape and not watching the sword.

  7. #7
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    Quote Originally Posted by camero7 View Post
    I feel like many beekeepers are like bulls chasing the cape and not watching the sword.
    I really like that
    mike syracuse ny
    I went to bed mean, and woke up meaner. Marshal Dillon

  8. #8
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    ...but this is in contrast with the USDA pollen survey, which finds imidacloprid in a lot of pollen (beebread...the USDA survey looked at stored pollen rather than trapped pollen). We have discussed this one before, and I'm really really shocked that I haven't seen any of the 'ban neonics' crowd cite the USDA report.

    WRT the Penn State work, my recollection is that they started trapping pollen specifically because they expected to find lots of neonics...they didn't. The samples that were high tended to come from orange groves where imidacloprid was being used copiously for citrus greening treatment.

    deknow

    Quote Originally Posted by camero7 View Post
    Thanks Dean! What is striking about this list is how few hits for neonics are on it. Assures me that the largest dangers to the hives remains organo's, fungicides and beekeeper applied chemicals. I feel like many beekeepers are like bulls chasing the cape and not watching the sword.
    The perils of benefactors; The blessings of parasites; Blindness blindness and sight -Joni Mitchell 'Shadows and Light'

  9. #9
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    There is always some value in looking back to see who was saying what when. Here is the 2008 video of Maryann Frazier talking about this study. She was kind enough to allow me to tape it and post it online, with the understanding that I would not film slides of data that had not yet been published.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F34TLvdg-OY

    deknow
    The perils of benefactors; The blessings of parasites; Blindness blindness and sight -Joni Mitchell 'Shadows and Light'

  10. #10
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    Mineral salts, and salt blocks. Bags or block form at the dairy supply/farm stores tend to have dewormer additives. Protein in the pollen patty substitutes contain soybean flour.

  11. #11
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    Default Re: Miticides, Ag Chems and Inert Ingredients A Deadly Mix In A Beehive.

    Quote Originally Posted by grumpybeeman View Post
    Mineral salts, and salt blocks. Bags or block form at the dairy supply/farm stores tend to have dewormer additives. Protein in the pollen patty substitutes contain soybean flour.
    Only if you don't know what you are doing or where to buy your ingredients!

    JMO

    Rusty
    Rusty Hills Farm -- home of AQHA A Rusty Zipper & Rusty's Bees ( LC and T)

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