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  1. #421
    Join Date
    Feb 2005
    Location
    Tucson, Arizona, USA
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    5,325

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    beekuk/Pete,
    Yes, those are some of the links I had read, earlier, about supplemental copper. Earlier, I had tried feeding a little copper gluconate to nucs, as I was first making them up. It may have been beneficial, though difficult to determine, since even hives not receiving the supplementation, exhibited no overt Varroa distress.
    48 years - 50 hives - TF
    Joseph Clemens -- Website Under Constructioni

  2. #422

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    Quote Originally Posted by melliferal View Post
    I don't think bees can actually develop a "virus resistance". They have plasmatocytes in their hemolymph which can eat invading bacteria and other parasites; but I don't believe they have antibodies and related mechanisms for combatting viruses. So I would tend to say, go forth and kill the viruses!

    I can only rely on my own experience:
    I got some 20 Italian virgin queens from a friend of mine, they were all mated in my isolation apiary and my drones.

    I sent laying queens back to my friend, all but one. The one I kept, I put into hive on my home yard, just 20m from home door. The queen I replaced was my normal stock. 3 weeks after the queen was put into this home yard hive, there started to be loads of wingless bees in the entrance and flying board of this Italian queen hive. All other hives in that yard had nothing.

    This is only my assumption: Those Italian queens must have been exceptionally weak against viruses (or my hives strong). Lots of variation anyway, if not resistance.
    Treatment free, honey production, isolation mated queens, www.saunalahti.fi/lunden/varroakertomus.html

  3. #423
    Join Date
    Aug 2010
    Location
    Cleveland, OH, USA
    Posts
    475

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    Quote Originally Posted by WLC View Post
    Yes, Honeybees can have viral resistance.

    Maori found IAPV resistance in Israeli Honeybees which was subsequently developed by Beeologics.
    Interesting!

    But was the resistance to the virus itself, or the vector of infection? I am curious how the viral resistance is manifested, if bees don't have antibodies (etc). Just a natural incompatibility with the virus maybe?
    Beeless since 2012; coming back in 2014. Suffering from apicultural withdrawal!

  4. #424
    Join Date
    Feb 2010
    Location
    New York City, NY
    Posts
    4,317

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    Quote Originally Posted by melliferal View Post
    Interesting! But was the resistance to the virus itself, or the vector of infection? I am curious how the viral resistance is manifested, if bees don't have antibodies (etc). Just a natural incompatibility with the virus maybe?
    It was RNAi.

    The current forms of immunity in Honeybees that are under study are: RNAi, Toll, Imd, and Jak/STAT.

    Just google RNAi to get the basics of how it works.

    What's known is that both Varroa and neonics can indeed weaken the antiviral response controlled by the Toll pathway. It's a bad combination.

  5. #425
    Join Date
    Aug 2010
    Location
    Cleveland, OH, USA
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    475

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    RNAi, gotcha. So this bee's immune system isn't actually directly attacking the virus itself; it just happens that this bee's RNA represses the particular virus's copying instructions. That's pretty handy!

    However, it seems to me that this trait suffers from the same negative that treating AFB with terramycin suffers from - those particular bees are safe, but their colony is a disease vector for other colonies.
    Beeless since 2012; coming back in 2014. Suffering from apicultural withdrawal!

  6. #426
    Join Date
    Feb 2010
    Location
    New York City, NY
    Posts
    4,317

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    Not really. Virus levels are greatly reduced in RNAI virus resistant colonies. So, they're less of a 'vector' problem than non-resistant colonies.

  7. #427
    Join Date
    Aug 2010
    Location
    Cleveland, OH, USA
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    475

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    I'm sure it is; it's not the level in the colony that I mean to say might be a problem. It's the fact that the disease's presence is undetectable in a colony with this resistance, so you don't know when it's there (and therefore when you're getting some of these bees you can't tell if you're bringing IAPV into your apiary).

    But, the gene is certainly an important discovery. I think people should try keeping a few colonies of these bees and crossing them with their non-resistant bees so this gene starts growing some legs.
    Beeless since 2012; coming back in 2014. Suffering from apicultural withdrawal!

  8. #428
    Join Date
    Feb 2010
    Location
    New York City, NY
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    4,317

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    Well, what we should really be looking for is the mechanism that put the resistance gene there. What they found was a 'jumping gene'.

    Some of us would like to know exactly what made it 'jump' in the first place.

  9. #429
    Join Date
    Aug 2010
    Location
    Cleveland, OH, USA
    Posts
    475

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    Like most evolution, it may well be coincidence. The particular RNA that happens to repress the replication of the virus might not be there for that reason; it could have some other actual function and the RNAi with the IAPV is a nifty bonus.
    Beeless since 2012; coming back in 2014. Suffering from apicultural withdrawal!

  10. #430
    Join Date
    Aug 2003
    Location
    Raleigh, NC, USA
    Posts
    770

    Default Re: The Scourge of Varroa?

    Quote Originally Posted by db_land View Post
    Regarding how varroa transmit DWV and other pathogens: are their excrement deposits in the brood cells known to be infective or known not to be infective?
    I think this means that the varroa mite feces does contain the DWV: "DWV was found only in the midgut lumen of V. destructor in structures resembling large, dense spheres, which were presumably faecal pellets." reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18559939
    Triangle Bees

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