Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Gene Flow from Genetically Engineered Plum Prunus domestica
Gene flow from genetically engineered (GE) crop plants to non-GE plants is a topic of interest and concern, and as such it has been the subject of a number of studies and review articles [1]–[14]. Concerns related to pollen-mediated transgene flow (PMTF) generally center around issues of developing weedy variants of wild species due to the acquisition of transgenes, or loss of species diversity due to increased fitness of GE hybrids [5], [10], [15], [4]. The majority of PMTF studies have been undertaken on agronomic crops such as soybean [8], maize [13], cotton [14], canola [15], and rice [16], or on herbaceous horticultural crops including tomato, sugar beet, strawberry [17], Chinese cabbage [10] and summer squash [11]. While there have been reviews [18] and theoretical and modeling studies [9], [19], there are few reports documenting PMTF in tree species with the exception of citrus [20], apple [21], and papaya, which is a relatively short-lived herbaceous tree species [22].