Re: vertical vs. horizontal movement
Problem with this thread so far is it's nearly all conjecture, guesswork and theory.
First up are we talking winter, summer, expanding hive, shrinking hive, what?
If we are talking an expanding hive, best way for anybody who really wants to know is set up a hive with a cluster and give it room with comb in all directions to expand any way it wants. You'll find it will primarily go up. As has been asserted by the only poster I see in the thread with experience in a good number of hives and being able to see what bees actually do, rather than some theory what they "should" do.
44 years, been commercial, outfits up to 4000 hives, now 120 hives and 200 nucs as a hobby, selling bees. T (mostly).