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  1. #1
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    Arrow CCD/Neonicotinoid Data (Studies, Articles, Links)

    Use this thread to post Articles, Studies or Links that apply to the topic of CCD.
    This will allow members to have all supporting data in one place.

    This thread is NOT for discussion.
    Post supporting data only. Discuss data in other threads.
    Regards, Barry

  2. #2
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    Default Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    Regards, Barry

  3. #3
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    Default Re: Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    Temporal Analysis of the Honey Bee Microbiome Reveals Four Novel Viruses and Seasonal Prevalence of Known Viruses, Nosema, and Crithidia

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3110205/

  4. #4
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    Default Effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Regards, Barry

  5. #5
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    Default Re: CCD/Neonicotinoid Data (Studies, Articles, Links)

    J Econ Entomol. 2010 Oct;103(5):1517-23.

    Weighing risk factors associated with bee colony collapse disorder by classification and regression tree analysis.

    VanEngelsdorp D, Speybroeck N, Evans JD, Nguyen BK, Mullin C, Frazier M, Frazier J, Cox-Foster D, Chen Y, Tarpy DR, Haubruge E, Pettis JS, Saegerman C.
    Source

    Bureau of Plant Industry, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 2301 North Cameron St., Harrisburg PA 17110, USA.
    Abstract

    Colony collapse disorder (CCD), a syndrome whose defining trait is the rapid loss of adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., is thought to be responsible for a minority of the large overwintering losses experienced by U.S. beekeepers since the winter 2006-2007. Using the same data set developed to perform a monofactorial analysis (PloS ONE 4: e6481, 2009), we conducted a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis in an attempt to better understand the relative importance and interrelations among different risk variables in explaining CCD. Fifty-five exploratory variables were used to construct two CART models: one model with and one model without a cost of misclassifying a CCD-diagnosed colony as a non-CCD colony. The resulting model tree that permitted for misclassification had a sensitivity and specificity of 85 and 74%, respectively. Although factors measuring colony stress (e.g., adult bee physiological measures, such as fluctuating asymmetry or mass of head) were important discriminating values, six of the 19 variables having the greatest discriminatory value were pesticide levels in different hive matrices. Notably, coumaphos levels in brood (a miticide commonly used by beekeepers) had the highest discriminatory value and were highest in control (healthy) colonies. Our CART analysis provides evidence that CCD is probably the result of several factors acting in concert, making afflicted colonies more susceptible to disease. This analysis highlights several areas that warrant further attention, including the effect of sublethal pesticide exposure on pathogen prevalence and the role of variability in bee tolerance to pesticides on colony survivorship.

    PMID:
    21061948
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  6. #6
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    Default Re: CCD/Neonicotinoid Data (Studies, Articles, Links)

    Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2950847/

  7. #7
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  8. #8
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    Default Re: CCD/Neonicotinoid Data (Studies, Articles, Links)

    J Invertebr Pathol. 2012 Oct;111(2):106-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2012.06.008. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

    Asymptomatic presence of Nosema spp. in Spanish commercial apiaries.
    Fernández JM, Puerta F, Cousinou M, Dios-Palomares R, Campano F, Redondo L.
    Source

    Apicultural Reference Center in Andalusia (CERA), Spain. zo3fepej@gmail.com
    Abstract

    Nosemosis is caused by intracellular parasites (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) that infect the midgut epithelial cells in adult honey bees. Recent studies relate N. ceranae to Colony Collapse Disorder and there is some suggestion that Nosema spp., especially N. ceranae, induces high mortality in honey bees, a fact that is considered as a serious threat for colony survival. 604 samples of adult honey bees for Nosema spp. analysis were collected from beekeeping colonies across Spain and were analysed using PCR with capillary electrophoresis. We also monitored 77 Andalusian apiaries for 2 years; the sampled hives were standard healthy colonies, without any special disease symptoms. We found 100% presence of Nosema spp. in some locations, indicating that this parasite was widespread throughout the country. The two year monitoring indicated that 87% of the hives with Nosema spp. remained viable, with normal honey production and biological development during this period of time. The results of these trials indicated that both N. ceranae and N. apis could be present in these beehives without causing disease symptom and that there is no evidence for the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae, supporting the hypothesis that nosemosis is not the main reason of the collapse and death of beehives.

    Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    PMID:
    22820066
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  9. #9
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    Default Re: CCD/Neonicotinoid Data (Studies, Articles, Links)

    Pretty interesting paper on bees on sunflowers and soybeans in Uruguay. Really explains why bees do poorly on sunflowers treated with neonics. This is the one study I've found that really proves neonics hurt bees. But these hives were also hurt by organophosphates.

    Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210585/

  10. #10
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    Default Is the solution to bees survival to ban more pesticides?

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0503094140.htm



    May 3, 2013 —
    Bees Survival: Ban More Pesticides?
    Neonicotinoids are under intense scrutiny. But a ban on a broad variety of pesticides may be required to protect bees, humans and the environment.

    The European Commission, on 29th April 2013, slapped a two-year ban on insecticides suspected of killing-off bee colonies. This follows the European Food Safety Authority finding that they pose a high acute risk to honey bees. Studies suggest that the nicotine-like compounds fry bees' navigation systems and leave them unable to learn, while weakening their immune system.

    But scientists now warn that other nerve-agents targeting insect pests may also be harming bees and other pollinators.

    "These neonicotinoids are just one of hundreds of compounds being used and I would be surprised if it was all down to just these chemicals," says Christopher Connolly, a neuro-scientist at the University of Dundee, UK. He argues that we should not allow farmers spray a toxic soup of chemicals onto their crops.

    Pesticides not adequately tested

    Connolly exposed bee brains to these pesticides and organo-based pesticides and reported that the nerves spun into hyperactivity and then stopped working. A combination of these two pesticides types had a stronger impact, suggesting the combined soup of pesticides could be causing more serious harm.

    "I don't understand how this was missed. As a neuroscientist it just seemed blindingly obvious. The biggest effect was hyper-activation of the major learning centre, which was completely predictable," Connolly said.

    The nerve agents effects were missed because safety-screens only looked to see how many honey bees die after four days exposure to the pesticide in question. But harm to the bees is only evident over a period of two weeks in bumblebees and is only seen when you look at entire colonies.


    "So the safety test is all wrong. The thing that concerns me is that this throws a question mark over several hundred pesticides, all tested by inadequate safety screens,"
    says Connolly. He suggests that we should be tracking pesticides use in the environment, just like we monitor drug use in patients.

    Not collecting such data might even pose health issues for people.

    "Bear in mind we have lots of 'idiopathic' diseases (diseases of unknown origin) in humans, which we don't know the cause of and given that we don't know what pesticides are used in what combinations and when, we don't know if these pesticides may be contributing to some or even all these unknown diseases,"
    Connolly warns.

    More research needed

    Connolly argues that we need to carry out research to find out which pesticides are the least harmful.
    If neonicotinoids are the least toxic, then we should go with them. He says governments have under-funded this research area partly because it is inconvenient to find pesticides are dangerous.

    Dave Goulson, Professor of Biological Science at the University of Stirling, UK agrees:

    "there haven't been nearly enough studies of all pesticides or interactions between them."
    He recently published a study showing neonicotinoids hit bumblebee colony growth and queen production.
    He also said: "beneficial insects such as ladybirds and bees are exposed to lots of different chemicals and we have a really poor understanding of what it does to them." He also points out that we need to be concerned with what we replace these nerve agents with.

    More research may be helpful, but industry criticises extrapolation of lab studies to field conditions. Julian Little, spokesperson for Bayer Cropscience, based in Norwich, UK, says the evidence against these pesticides has all been lab based, essentially taking a social insect and force-feeding it insecticide. It says the results cannot be replicated in the environment.

    But he also agrees more monitoring of pollinators is needed. "Where you do get large-scale bee deaths not enough has been done to know exactly what has happened," Little commented. He says pests and loss of feeding sites and nesting sites are most likely behind bee declines. "France has had restrictions [of neonicotinoids] over the last ten years, yet the bees there remain as bad if not worse than they are in the UK."Avoidance of pesticide use

    A possible solution to preserve bee populations further would be to restore the principle of avoidance of pesticide use.

    "The whole ethos of pest management has gone in the wrong direction," Goulson argues. Whereas integrated pest management sought to use as few pesticides as possible, the neonicotinoids are a preventive strike.

    "A simple analogy is that it's like taking antibiotics in case you get ill rather than when you get ill. Everyone knows that is a silly idea, as it results in bacteria rapidly developing resistance. It is the same with these pesticides."

    However, opponents believe that the neonicotinoids ban is unlikely to decrease pesticide use. Quite the opposite.
    Julian Little of Bayer warns that farmers may now have to resort to spraying insecticides up to four times a year, now that they cannot coat seeds in neonicotinoids.

    But other experts do not agree. There are several alternatives to using neonicotinoids, and other pesticides, according to Simon Potts, professor of biodiversity and ecosystem services at Reading University, UK.
    "This is a great opportunity for farmers to adopt these practices to protect bees and other pollinators".Indeed, he believes farmers will benefit from healthy pollinator populations as they provide substantial economic benefits to crop pollination.

    "Few people would disagree that we need to protect our food production, but it shouldn't be at the cost of damaging the environment," Potts said, adding:
    "A short-term decision to keep using harmful products may be convenient, but will almost certainly have much greater long-term costs for food production and the environment."

  11. #11
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    Default "canada wrestles with bee-killing pesticides"

    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmont...esticides.html

    CBC Edmonton: May 3, 2013 2:18 PM MT

    Canada wrestles with bee-killing crop pesticides
    Government recommends mitigation measures, not ban



    Canadian government scientists have found evidence that neonicotinoid pesticides were linked to mass bee deaths during the spring corn planting in Ontario and Quebec in 2012. (Heinz-Peter Bader/Reuters)

    Canadians beekeepers, farmers and regulators are wrestling with how to protect bees from popular pesticides that were partially banned in Europe this week.

    The European Commission announced Monday that it would go ahead with a partial two-year ban on three kinds of neonicotinoid pesticides that have been linked to bee deaths. The pesticides are used to coat most commercial corn seeds and protect them from pests such as seed-eating insects.

    Canadian government scientists have found evidence that neonicotinoid pesticides were linked to mass bee deaths during the spring corn planting in Ontario and Quebec in 2012, Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency confirmed in a report.

    Read more about Health Canada's findings HERE:
    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windso...-planting.html

    To ban or not to ban?

    That has some people, such as Dan Davidson, president of the Ontario Beekepers' Association, calling for the use of the neonicotinoid pesticides to be restricted in Canada also.

    "I think the best for beekeepers would be a ban," he told CBC's The Current. "We have to call for replacement of these chemicals.
    We won't be able to keep going on if they continue to be used at the rates they're being used now."
    Listen to the full interviews on 'The Current'
    http://www.cbc.ca/thecurrent/episode...-bee-industry/

    The environmental advocacy group Sierra Club Canada is similarly calling for a Canada to take the pesticides off the market until they have been proven safe.

    However, Kevin Armstrong, a farmer who grows corn, wheat and soybean south of Woodstock, Ont., said neonicotinoid pesticides are essential for protecting corn seeds and seedlings during their crucial first month.

    "It is a kind of insurance policy for us," he told The Current. "The vigour of the whole plant is assured for the whole season."

    Armstrong said neonicotinoids are largely responsible for a 15 per cent increase in Ontario corn yields over the past 15 years, and so a ban on them could cause a significant loss. A loss of 10 per cent translates into about $100 an acre, he said. If Ontario farmers plant 2.3 million acres of corn as expected, that could amount to a $230-million loss.

    "It works out to a significant economic setback for us."

    2012 mass bee-deaths unprecedented

    Mary Mitchell, director-general of the environmental assessment directorate with Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency, said neonicotinoid pesticides have been registered in Canada for 10 to 15 years and mass bee deaths linked to them had never been reported before last year.

    "So we do think the weather may have been a factor," she said, noting that it had been an unusually early, warm dry spring.

    She said regulators are working to prevent that happening again, but she did not mention any talk of restrictions on the use of the pesticides.

    Instead, she said the government is encouraging farmers to communicate better with beekeepers and to using planting equipment that minimizes the production of dust, which is thought to be a major way bees are exposed to the pesticides.

    The government is also working with the agricultural industry on ways to get the pesticide coating to stick better to the seed so it can't come off and harm the bees.

    Tracy Baute, who leads the field crop entomology program at the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, said more studies are underway to find out exactly how bees are exposed to neonicotinoid pesticides.

    However, in the meantime, she recommends that farmers:
    • Let nearby beekeepers know when they are planting so the beekeepers can move hives if necessary.
    • Consider planting in the early morning or the evening, when bees are less active.
    • Consider using seeds that aren't treated with pesticides in fields at a lower risk of attack by pests.



    The reports of mass bee deaths in Ontario and Quebec in 2012 took place around the time that two scientific studies were published showing that bees can be harmed by even low levels of neonicotinoids.

    Many bee species have been declining in North America and Europe, and some have even gone extinct or are believed to be close to extinction. Meanwhile, honeybees have been reported dying or disappearing en masse since 2006. In addition to pesticides, there is evidence that fungi, viruses, or parasites may play a role.

  12. #12
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    Default The science behind the eu ban on neonics: Bbc radio programme

    This is an excellent BBC Radio discussion of the Science behind the ban on neonics in Europe.
    It is available online in America via this link, which should work in the USA.

    Professor Dave Goulson (bumblebee expert at Sussex University) is good and Professor Lynn Dicks of Cambridge University (entomologist: moth and butterfly expert) is good on the regulatory process.


    http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01s4sz8

    BBC Radio: 'MATERIAL WORLD': Bees and pesticides;

    Duration: 10 minutes

    First broadcast: Thursday 02 May 2013
    "EU states have voted in favour of a proposal to restrict the use of certain pesticides that have been linked to causing serious harm in bees. Neonicotinoid chemicals in pesticides are sprayed onto seeds and spread throughout the plant as it grows. There has been a lot of concern about this systemic approach, with some scientists arguing that it is comparable to using antibiotics 'prophylactically' - every day of your life (in case you get a sore throat).

    Professor Dave Goulson from the University of Sussex and Dr. Lynn Dicks from the University of Cambridge discuss the scientific evidence currently available on these pesticides as well as the limited data available on the population and health of hundreds of other pollinating insect species."
    Last edited by Barry; 05-05-2013 at 01:06 PM.

  13. #13
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    Default Re: The science behind the eu ban on neonics: Bbc radio programme

    Reduction in homing flights in the honey bee Apis mellifera
    after a sublethal dose of neonicotinoid insecticides


    Takashi MATSUMOTO

    Honey Bee Research Unit, NARO Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Tsukuba, Japan


    Abstract
    The negative effects of a commonly applied systemic insecticide, neonicotinoid, on the honey bee Apis mellifera L. are of great concern worldwide, as the use of the chemical is expanding. Recently, special attention has been paid to the sublethal effects of insecticides. An increasing number of studies has identified sublethal effects on the honey bee in the laboratory or in experimental cages, but so far, few studies have examined sublethal effects in the field. To reveal sublethal effects under field conditions, I examined whether the proportion of successful homing flights by foraging honey bees during 30 min after release decreased after bees were topically exposed to insecticides. Honey bees were treated with two types of neonicotinoid insecticide (clothianidin, Dinotefuran) and two types of previously common insecticide (etofenprox [pyrethroid] and fenitrothion [organophosphate]) at five different doses (one-half, one-fourth, one-tenth, one-twentieth, and one-fortieth of their median lethal dose - LD50).

    Then the bees were released 500metres from their hives in the field. The proportions of successful homing flights by bees exposed to neonicotinoids and pyrethroid decreased with doses of one-tenth LD50 (2.18 ng/ head for clothianidin, 7.5 ng/ head for dinotefuran) or more and one-fourth LD50 (32.5 ng/ head for pyrethroid) or more, respectively, whereas bees exposed to organophosphate did not significantly show a response at any sublethal dose though the trend in decline appeared to.

    Flight times were not significantly different among treatments at any dose. These results indicate that neonicotinoid and pyrethroid exposure reduced successful homing flights at doses far below the LD50 in the field. Moreover, neonicotinoid caused reductions at relatively lower exposure than pyrethroid.

    Key words: nonlethal, pollinator, insecticide, clothianidin, dinotefuran, pyrethroid, etofenprox.

  14. #14
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    Default CCD in the news again.

    Nothing new, but was a quick read.

    http://finance.yahoo.com/news/mass-h...GVfT2Zm;_ylv=3

  15. #15
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    Default Re: Monsanto GMO products contribute to ccd

    http://topinfopost.com/2013/05/28/ru...obama-monsanto

    "The shocking minutes relating to President Putin’s meeting this past week with US Secretary of State John Kerry reveal the Russian leaders “extreme outrage” over the Obama regimes continued protection of global seed and plant bio-genetic giants Syngenta and Monsanto in the face of a growing “bee apocalypse” that the Kremlin warns “will most certainly” lead to world war."

  16. #16
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    Default Re: Monsanto GMO products contribute to ccd

    Quote Originally Posted by BigDawg View Post
    http://topinfopost.com/2013/05/28/ru...obama-monsanto

    "The shocking minutes relating to President Putin’s meeting this past week with US Secretary of State John Kerry reveal the Russian leaders “extreme outrage” over the Obama regimes continued protection of global seed and plant bio-genetic giants Syngenta and Monsanto in the face of a growing “bee apocalypse” that the Kremlin warns “will most certainly” lead to world war."
    This entire incident appears to have been made up.
    Beeless since 2012; coming back in 2014. Suffering from apicultural withdrawal!

  17. #17
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    Default Re: Monsanto GMO products contribute to ccd

    Quote Originally Posted by melliferal View Post
    And the discovery of GMO wheat in Oregon may have been caused by an act of sabotage: http://finance.yahoo.com/news/monsan...160529439.html

    "Sabotage is a possibility, said Robb Fraley, Monsanto chief technology officer." "We're considering all options and that's certainly one of the options," Fraley said.

  18. #18
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    Default Re: Monsanto GMO products contribute to ccd

    Japan cancels large US wheat order due to recent discovery of GMO contamination of non-GMO wheat fields in Oregon:

    http://www.marketwatch.com/story/jap...ist=beforebell

  19. #19
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    Default Re: Monsanto GMO products contribute to ccd

    Japan has already canceled a large US wheat order today based upon fears of GMO contamination of the US wheat supply and Korea is expected to do the same...

    http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/...0EB1JC20130530

    "State agriculture department Director Katy Coba said 85 to 90 percent of the Pacific Northwest's soft white wheat crop is exported to Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and other nations, where it's used to make noodles and crackers. Oregon's wheat crop is valued at $300 million to $500 million annually, depending on yield and price.

    "Clearly there's a concern about market reaction," Coba said. "Japan and Korea jump out. They do not want genetically-engineered food, they do not want genetically-engineered wheat. They could shut off the market to us."

    "A 2005 study estimated that the national wheat industry could lose $94 to $272 million annually if GE wheat were introduced, because many markets oppose or prohibit modified crops, according to the Center for Food Safety."

    http://www.oregonlive.com/business/i....html#comments

  20. #20
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    Default AHPA Speaks Out Against GM Bees, Calls For More Research On GMO's

    "Whereas genetically engineered honeybees could have devastating economic implications to the value and the marketability of honey and honeybee products, and enormous economic costs to the bee industry due to the intellectual property rights laws of genetically engineered organisms (beekeepers may not be able to openly breed their own bees because of royalties to a genetic monopoly), therefore be it resolved that the AHPA goes on record as strongly opposing the testing, development, and release of genetically engineered honeybees."

    https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/ahpanet.si...utions2013.pdf

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