Re: Splitting TBH - Distance
Couple of points, when you make the split many of the bees in the hive you move away will drift back to the origional site and leave the other one weak. To help with this, you can move both hives an equal distance away in opposite directions. But if you don't want to move one of the hives, dump into the one that gets moved away, twice as many bees as what you want to end up with, taken mostly from the brood area where the most young bees are. Bees under around 2 weeks old will not have flown and learned their location yet so will stay in the hive you've moved, but the older bees will return to the other hive. So shoot for double the number of bees you need, and it will roughly work out, provided the hive has a normal brood nest with hatching and young bees.
The other dilema is the bees will be more inclined to stay in the hive you move, if that one has the origional queen. But the opposing problem is that young bees accept a new queen better than old bees, and the origional hive will have more old bees. So there is an argument to move the queen and introduce the new one to the origional hive, but also an argument to introduce the new queen to the hive that's been moved, where they are mostly young bees.
So what to do is a judgement call. But all things considered, in my opinion it's usually best to move the origional queen with the hive that gets moved, to hold as many bees as possible, and introduce the new queen to the other hive. If there is no nectar coming in, feed the bees sugar syrup during the queen introduction it puts them in a better mood and increases chances of success. Don't spray them with any perfumes or whatever, they don't help and can actually make things worse. Just straight sugar syrup.
44 years, been commercial, outfits up to 4000 hives, now 120 hives and 200 nucs as a hobby, selling bees. T (mostly).