I don't have an account to view the information above and don't have time to deal with it this morning. I did read the description an the idea of splitting and recombining hives.

I did find it interested that it said. "This usually results in a new queen (adding to the gene pool from whatever source the drone came from) but if not you are usually better off.

Taken at it's face value this is saying if you add to the gene pool you are taking a step backwards. You whee better off with what you had in the first place. If the queen from the split does not survive you have added nothing. If she does you have replaced half of your original genes with who knows what. I would have to see how he goes about fertilization of the new queen.

Genetics are complicated in that you have confusing factors influencing confusing factors. and then throw in a healthy does of exceptions.

There are the basics of how genes work. and then there are the specifics to any species.

For example almost every known animal in the world has it's sex determined by only 2 genes. an X and a Y two X's means a female an X and a Y mean a male and only males can carry a Y. This creates a 50-50 chance of any offspring being a male or a female. But in bees this is not true. they have multiple genes and only a combination of two of the same or even one of the same results in a male. All others result in a female. this is the cause of the female dominated production of offspring. now for the exception. the queen can alter the chance of an egg receiving the same gene from the sperm by simply laying an egg with no contribution from the drone. she controls how many males will even be produced in a hive.

If there are 19 genes in each drone that determine sex. and the queen mates with 10 drones. this means there is a pool of 190 possible genes that determine the sex of every fertile egg in the hive. The chance that a drone will result from a fertile egg is almost impossible.

It it possible that with no selection process desirable traits will result? certainly. It is more likely you will get struck by lightening but it happens.

Over 10,000 genes most of which are undesirable and by chance you will draw only a combination that is desirable.

What if out of all of those 19 genes only one produces a top quality productive queen that passes that tendency toward top rate productivity to her daughters? You have less than 5% chance of drawing that gene. and even if you do you still have 169 additional draws to be just as lucky. You have to be lucky and get the right hygienic genes. and the right aggression genes. and a better set of smelling and taste genes. etc. etc. etc.

Anyone ever tried to draw 140 straight winning hands at poker? Let me know when you have done it.