mark, thanks again for that excellent response. i see you as especially qualified to answer the question as to how much or how little the is the consideration of nosema in the real world of beekeeping. you tend to confirm my suspicion that is may be less than it deserves. (an educated 'hunch")

for the record, i did not say or imply that nosema causes ccd. my understanding is that ccd is linked statistically with significance to nosema, and has been identified as a probable co-factor.

sergey, believe it or not, (raises hand), i was the one asking most of the questions, sometimes to the audible groaning of my fellow classmates.