Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies
Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. CCD colonies showed moderately higher incidences of pathogens (Table 1) than non-CCD colonies. For all nine targets, the proportion of positive colonies was higher among CCD colonies than non-CCD colonies, although only DWV, KBV, and N. apis were significant at α = 0.05.