Re: How much honey to leave on hive?
You can't feed in the winter so you have to leave them enough. I believe you can't leave them too much and spring is the best time to determine what is too much and not enough or you play Russian roulette. What they don't consume will be in the hive in the spring.
Now if you are talking economics as to how much honey you can take and replace with feed that will have to be answered by someone else. To me that is a gamble.
Zone 5a, Practicing non-intervention beekeeping