Re: poor queens
Taking bees as either a package or a swarm, from somewhere where there has been a decent flow or feeding, and installing them in a new hive where there is no flow, will stress things with the queen and sometimes lead to high % supercedure.
Each year I collect maybe 30 or 40 swarms that origionated from back yard hives in the suburbs, where there is a good nectar flow at that time. This year I put around 20 of them at a yard where there was a total dearth at the time, and the majority of them went queenless, some of them permanently & had to be requeened. Won't be using that yard for swarms again.
On a different tac, an issue for queen breeders is the effect of varroa on drones. There are often not large numbers of drones till later in the season. So the early queens can struggle with low drone numbers. This is compounded because a lot of hives will not have had their spring varroa treatments and have high varroa counts, reducing drone sperm counts. Then, when treatment is done, the chemicals themselves can also reduce drone sperm counts. So it's a double whammy that did not exist before varroa mites.
"We don't need no education" (Pink Floyd) - Yes you do, you just used a double negative.