· The mode of action of neonicotinoid insecticides derives from almost complete and virtually irreversible blockage of postsynaptic nicotinic AcetylCholine-Receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system of insects.
· The toxicity of neonicotinoids to arthropods is reinforced by exposure time. Their dose : response characteristics are strikingly similar to those of carcinogens. Thus, there may not be a safe level of exposure.
· Imidacloprid is persistent and mobile in soil and prone to leaching.
· The contamination of surface water with imidacloprid is massive in some parts of Holland.
· Of the 13 components of agricultural intensification, only the use of insecticides and fungicides had consistent negative effects on biodiversity (wild plant, carabid and bird species).
· Surface water contamination with Imidacloprid correlates with reduced Diptera (Flies and Midges) abundance.
· Strong decline of butterflies since the introduction of neonicotinoid insecticides.
· Many invertebrate-dependent bird species (in very different habitats) are declining, some are now extinct.