Re: Japanese campaign against neonicotinoids
Let's see what I have on this thread:
The first one is about how seed drills pulverize the neonic seed coat on maize, and the dust can blow across fields (off target effect).
The second one shows that guttation drops from neonic treated corn kills bees within minutes (another off target effect).
The third one shows that neonics, even at sublethal/undetectable doses, increases the pathogenicity of Nosema (potentiation effect) while suppresing glucose oxidase/colony immunity (immune suppression).
So, neonics can kill during planting, during the first few weeks of growth, can 'potentiate' a known honeybee pathogen afterwards, and then suppress colony immunity.
So, it's obvious that neonics can not only go off target and kill directly, but even at undetectable levels, they can cause Nosema to become more deadly.
Have I left anything out?
Off target effects, pathogen potentiation, and immune suppression.
I'd say that neonics have a few problems.
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