Re: powder sugar dusting
Here's part of the issue. IPM is not a replacement for chemical pesticide usage.
For this reason, many beekeepers are adopting Integrated Pest Management strategies as alternatives to chemocentric varroa control schemes.
Chemical pesticide usage simply becomes of of many possible control methods used together to manage the "pest" population. Ideally, the involvement of the other control methods can minimize or eliminate the need for chemical pesticides being used.
Waynes post demonstrates this quite effectively I think.
Apparently some university researchers aren't quite up to snuff on what Integrated Pest Management entails.
No, I am NOT a bee "Keeper". Anything I post is just my opinion. Take it easy and think for yourself.