I am currently working on submitting some Pollen Supplement samples.
My mind is also on a local brush fire.
I am currently working on submitting some Pollen Supplement samples.
My mind is also on a local brush fire.
here is a very good report:
Research Project: Improve Nutrition for Honey Bee Colonies to Stimulate Population Growth, Increase Queen Quality, and Reduce the Impact of Varroa Mites
Location: Honey Bee Research
Title: The Importance of Microbes in Nutrition and Health of Honey Bee Colonies Part-3: Where Do We Go From Here?
Vreeland, Russell -
Alarcon Jr, Ruben
Submitted to: American Bee Journal
Publication Type: Trade Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 20, 2009
Publication Date: August 1, 2009 Citation: Hoffman, G.D., Vreeland, R., Sammataro, D., Alarcon Jr, R.N. 2009. The Importance of Microbes in Nutrition and Health of Honey Bee Colonies Part-3: Where Do We Go From Here?. American Bee Journal 149:755-757.
Interpretive Summary: This manuscript is the third part of a three part series on the importance of microbes in nutrition and health of honey bee colonies. In the first two parts of the series, we discussed the role of microbes in honey bee colony food processing and digestion and their possible contribution in the reduction of pathogens. There also was a discussion of factors such as antibiotics and pesticides that could compromise the growth and diversity of a colony's microbial community and possibly impact the colony's health. There is little known abut the beneficial microbes in honey bees and bee bread, and what is known is largely from studies conducted several decades ago. In the third part of this series, we present descriptions of studies that are needed such as metagenomic and functional metagenomic analyses of bee bread to expand our understanding of the contributions of microbes to food processing and utilization in honey bee colonies.
Technical Abstract: Microbial communities in honey bee colonies are essential for food processing and digestion. Symbiotic microbes also might contribute to the reduction of pathogens in the hive by synthesizing antimicrobial compounds. Environmental contaminants such as pesticides, fungicides and antibiotics could compromise the growth and diversity of a colony's microbial community and possibly impact the colony's health. There is little known about the beneficial microbes in honey bees and bee bread, and what is known is largely from studies conducted several decades ago. In the third part of this series, we present descriptions of studies that are needed such as metagenomic and functional metagenomic analyses of bee bread to expand our understanding of the contributions of microbes to food processing and utilization in honey bee colonies.
Here is a report done in Slavokia:
2003 report from Slavokia:
No lactobacilli were found
Received: 20 October 2003 Revised: 18 December 2003
Abstract Microorganisms in the midgut and rectum of the honeybee were enumerated and characterized.
Counts of aerobic microorganisms were distinctly lower than counts of anaerobes (105–106 viable cells per g of intestinal contentvs. 108–109 per g).
Total numbers of anaerobic microorganisms were almost identical with the count of anaerobic Gram-positive acid resistant rods.
A higher number of coliform bacteria andBacillus spp. was detected in the rectum (105 per g).
Anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, coliforms, enterococci,Bacillus spp.,Pseudomonas spp. and yeasts were found in all bees;
lactobacilli, staphylococci and moulds were not found.
This work was supported by project no. 20-006102 of theAgency for Support of Science and Techniques (Slovakia).
More data on-- The effects of probiotic supplementation on the content of intestinal microflora and chemical composition of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera)
Journal of Apicultural Research Vol. 44 (1) pp. 10 - 14
Date March 2005
Article Title The effects of probiotic supplementation on the content of intestinal microflora and chemical composition of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera)
Author(s) Adam Kaznowski, Bozena Szymas, Ewa Jazdzinska, Magdalena Kazimierczak, Halina Paetz and Joanna Mokracka
Abstract Two probiotics, Biogen-N and Trilac, were used as supplements to pollen substitute in feeding honey bees, Apis mellifera. The probiotics were given either throughout the entire 14-day experiment or only for 2 days, just after bee emergence. The midgut of worker bees was colonized by bacteria present in probiotics, including Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus acidilactici, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Enterococcus faecium. Advantages of probiotic supplementation include better bee survival and higher dry mass and crude fat level in comparison with bees fed with pollen substitute only. We did not observe significant differences in total protein in the dry mass of bees. There was no correlation between the duration of feeding with probiotics and the chemical composition of the bees. This suggests that to achieve an increase in dry mass and crude fat level, it is sufficient to supply probiotics only in the beginning of the feeding period, directly after bee emergence. Keywords Apis mellifera, feeding, pollen substitute, probiotics
Lipids and honey bee nutrition:
The following data supports the addition of lipids to pollen supplemens and or pollen substitutes!
Information on the nutritional need for dietary lipids (fatty acids, sterols, and phospholipids) in honey bees is fragmentary and inconclusive. Generally, lipids are used for energy, synthesis of re serve fat and glycogen, and for the functioning of cellular membranes. The lipid composition of adult bees differs from that of pollen. However, a phospholipid found in pollen also is found in the body tissue of adult bees. Another substance, 24-methylene cholesterol, also found in pollen, is the major sterol of the body tissue of adult queen and worker bees. Possibly, certain lipids have a significant role in the lubrication of food when it is ingested and prepared for absorption. All insects studied critically were found to require a dietary sterol; therefore, it is reasonable to assume the honey bee also requires this lipid.
Today I re-worked one of my Pollen Supplement formulas and ran it through my calculation data sheet.
Here are some of the results:
Crude Protein 23.57 %
Oil 6.29 %
I had a conversation the other day w/ a beekeeping friend who, at one time, got some pollen from a supplier and then was told that it was on Recall. He got the pollen tested and found that besides the high levels of fluvalinate, it also contained DDT. This pollen was from China.
Pollen from his own bees had chemicals similar to flea collar chemicals, which he believes came from the beef cattle farm near by.
It makes me wonder what's in my pollen and honey.
The answers are the end. The questions are the journey. Journey on.
Well said Sqkcrk, That is the main reason why we have no bee products in our sub, we were greatly concerned about spreading unknow contaminets through out the hive or worse yet operation.
P.S. Ernie, the lab is the only true reading for protein ect...
A spread sheet will get you in the ball park.
NUTRA-BEE feed supplements
He got the pollen tested and found that besides the high levels of fluvalinate,
The high levels of Fluvalinate probably came from a 6 fluid ounce container that retails for $28.00 that's registered for the nursery business and not to be used for home made remedies to control Varroa mites. One package would treat over 200 hives.
I know of several United States bee operations that were soaking the"product" in strips of chip board and then putting it into their hives for the bees to chew up and dispose of out their front door.
Saturday, October 10, 2009 Update
I decided to add a third source of oil to my Pollen Supplement and Pollen Substitute patties.I tried it out in the last batch that was applied 10 days ago and the bees consumed it just like the two oils,corn and canola, that was used previously.
If you are going to keep bees, you need to expand your vocabulary!
So, here is a new one for you to learn about it's called
Here's some detailed data on how bees use fats/lipids:
FAT METABOLISM IN INSECTS
Lilián E Canavoso, Zeina E Jouni, K Joy Karnas, James E Pennington, and Michael A Wells
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, and Center for Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721
Abstract The study of fat metabolism in insects has received considerable attention over the years.
Although by no means complete, there is a growing body of information about dietary lipid requirements, and the absolute requirement for sterol is of particular note.
In this review we
(a) summarize the state of understanding of the dietary requirements for the major lipids
and (b) describe in detail the insect lipid transport system.
Insects digest and absorb lipids similarly to vertebrates, but with some important differences.
The hallmark of fat metabolism in insects centers on the lipid transport system.
The major lipid transported is diacylglycerol, and it is carried by a high-density lipoprotein called lipophorin. Lipophorin is a reusable shuttle that picks up lipid from the gut and delivers it to tissues for storage or utilization without using the endocytic processes common to vertebrate cells.The mechanisms by which this occurs are not completely understood and offer fruitful areas for future research.
Vitamins for bees:
Here's a list important vitamins to consider when you are supplementing an animal including bees.
1.0 Vitamin A
2.0 Vitamin D-3
3.0 Vitamin E
4.0 Vitamin B 12 (cobalamins).
5.0 *Vitamin B6
6.0 Vitamin B2 Riboflavin
7.0 Vitamin B1 Thiamine
8.0 Vitamin K precursor.Menadione
Despite the fact that it can serve as a precursor to various types of vitamin K, menadione is generally not used as a nutritional supplement.
9.0 Vitamin B5 d-Pantothenic Acid
10.0 Vitamin B9 Folic acid
11.0 Vitamin H or B7 Biotin
12.0 Vitamin B3 niacin
*Choline is an organic compound, classified as a water-soluble essential nutrient   and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. This natural amine is found in the lipids that make up cell membranes and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Adequate intakes (AI) for this micronutrient of between 425 to 550 milligrams daily, for adults, have been established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.
I will provide information about the above items later when I have the time.
Last edited by BEES4U; 10-15-2009 at 12:18 PM. Reason: added a paragraph about choline
Tell me if you heard of torula yeast and is it better then brewers yeast.I found it on this web site. www.honeybee.com.au copper287
Tell me if you heard of torula yeast
I used Torula yeast back in 1972 and I used Coors brewers yeast.
I have read a lot of current data coming out of Australia about this yeast.
The Australians also use pollard.
I read somewhere that it's not as good as a high grade brewers yeast,
So, I droped it from my Pollen Supplement and Pollen Substitute ingredients.
I could not find a local supplier for the Torula yeast.
What's interesting about Torula yeast is that currently Cuba is growing it by the mega tons on sugar cane end product and using it in their swine rations!
It was and still is a costly part of the supplement.
I would suggest that you take a close look at brewers yeast for two reasons.
1. It's readily available
2. It's a superior product.
Ok.I was wanting to see if it was cheaper,but your right on finding it.Its hard to find in the U.S. Thanks copper287
Ok.I was wanting to see if it was cheaper,
Torula yeast is used as a flavor enhancer in foods like chips and we probably can not compete with that market demand.
Try to get some BrewTech brewers yeast locally.
Your bees will thrive on it in pollen substitute or pollen supplement patties.