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  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
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    souris, manitoba, canada
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    Default thymolated syrup

    Have been feeding thymol in syrup, was unseasonally warm 2 days ago, 28Celuis, had a few bee beards, wondering if this is a side effect

    Also saw a study on thymol and Fumidil B, whch after 3 years, nosema spores were really low.



    This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2008 by the Americal Chemical Society.

    β-Cyclodextrins as Carriers of Monoterpenes into the Hemolymph of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) for Integrated Pest Management

    Blaise W. LeBlanc,*† Stephen Boué,‡ Gloria De-Grandi Hoffman,† Thomas Deeby,† Holly McCready,† and Kevin Loeffelmann§

    Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, Arizona 85719; Southern Regional Research Center, USDA ARS, New Orleans, Louisiana 70179; and Southwest Watershed Research, USDA ARS, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, Arizona 85719

    Received for review May 22, 2008. Revised manuscript received July 12, 2008. Accepted July 14, 2008. We express gratitude to the National Honey Board (project no. 58-5343-7-472) for funding this project.

    Abstract:

    The Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is becoming ubiquitous worldwide and is a serious threat to honey bees. The cultivation of certain food crops are at risk. The most noted acaricides against Varroa mites are tau-fluvaninate and coumaphos, but the mites are showing resistance. Since these insecticides are used in the proximity of honey, it is desirable to use natural alternatives. Monoterpenoids such as thymol and carvacrol, that are constituents of oil of thyme and oil of origanum, show promise as acaricides against the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor), but the delivery of these compounds remains a challenge due to the low water solubility and uncontrolled release into the colony. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complexes of thymol, oil of origanum, and carvacrol were prepared on a preparative scale. Competitive binding was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy by using 6-p-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate as a fluorescent probe. The complexes were characterized, and the competitive binding described by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy chemical shifts. The toxicity of β-CD and the prepared complexes in enriched sucrose syrup was studied by conducting caged honey bee (Apis mellifera) feeding trials. After the first and second weeks of feeding, hemolymph and gut tissue samples were acquired from the caged bee study. The levels of thymol and carvacrol were quantified by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectroscopy, using an optimized procedure we developed. High (mM) levels of thymol and carvacrol were detected in bee tissues without any imposed toxicity to the bees, in an effort to deter Varroa mites from feeding on honey bee hemolymph.

    Keywords: Varroa; essential oils; phenolics; thymol; carvacrol; origanum; cyclodextrin; drug delivery.

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Oct 2007
    Location
    VENTURA, California, USA
    Posts
    3,637

    Default 28Celuis, had a few bee beards

    I do not know your concentration ot thymol. But 82 degrees F should not make them hang out side.
    Regards,
    Ernie Lucas Apiaries
    Ernie
    My websitehttp://bees4u.com/

  3. #3
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    Jan 2005
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    souris, manitoba, canada
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    746

    Default various concentrations, experimenting

    have tried,1/2. 3/4 and one gram per gallon, in my last tankfull mixed, thymol failed to dissolve properly, had large crystals floating on top of syrup, not a good situation.......?Could be I failed to dissolve thymol in enought alcohol and temperatures are cooling down here,syrup is getting thicker.Anyone know if this THYMOL increases mite drop verses natural mite drop?

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Dec 2006
    Location
    Amador County, Calif
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    3,122

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by irwin harlton View Post
    Could be I failed to dissolve thymol in enought alcohol
    Irwin, that could be, try useing the highest amount ( % ) of alcohol to help dissolve. Good luck.
    Keith

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Dec 2005
    Location
    Cleveland, Texas
    Posts
    1,385

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Keith Jarrett View Post
    Irwin, that could be, try useing the highest amount ( % ) of alcohol to help dissolve. Good luck.
    Keith
    I use 190 proof vodka as a solvent and have had no problems with thymol recrystallizing.
    "The UNKNOWN, huh? That would be SNORBERT ZANGOX over in Waycross."

  6. #6
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    souris, manitoba, canada
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    Default thymolated syrup

    another study showing thymols good effects on nosema

    Apidologie 39 (2008) 436-445
    DOI: 10.1051/apido:2008022
    Screening of natural compounds for the control of nosema disease in honeybees (Apis mellifera)
    Lara Maistrello1, Marco Lodesani2, Cecilia Costa2, Francesco Leonardi1, Giovanna Marani1, Mauro Caldon3, Franco Mutinelli3 and Anna Granato3

    1 Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e degli Alimenti, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Amendola 2, Area San Lazzaro - Pad. Besta,

    42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy
    2 Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unità di Ricerca di Apicoltura e Bachicoltura (CRA-API, ex Istituto

    Nazionale di Apicoltura), via di Saliceto 80, 40128 Bologna, Italy
    3 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, viale dell'Università, 10, 35020 Legnaro (Padova), Italy

    Received 16 July 2007 - Revised 18 January 2008 - Accepted 4 March 2008 - Published online 25 June 2008

    Abstract - The potential of some natural compounds (thymol, vetiver essential oil, lysozyme, resveratrol) for the control of nosema infection

    in honeybees was evaluated. A first trial aimed at screening substances, in candy preparations, on the basis of their toxicity to honeybees

    and bees' dietary preferences. None of the tested substances showed an increased bee mortality or decreased bee preference, and were

    therefore considered suitable for further testing. In the second trial the effects of the natural compounds on nosema diseased honeybees were

    evaluated: bees were individually dosed with nosema spores and fed candies prepared with the screened substances. The results showed that

    bees fed with thymol and resveratrol candies had significantly lower infection rates, and bees supplied with resveratrol prepared candy also

    lived significantly longer. We suggest that thymol and resveratrol could be useful in alternative strategies for the control of nosema

    disease.

    My winter loss decreased by 4% , which I would credit to thymolated syrup.

    Anybody else seeing good things with thymol in syrup?

  7. #7
    Join Date
    Dec 2008
    Location
    Menomonee Falls, Wis.
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    2,467

    Default

    Nothing concrete, good or bad, but there is no longer any black mold in the feeder pails. I believe Randy Oliver has discussed the .44 mMoles suggested concentration level that I use.(Just so the feed will not mold, of course(wink) I also remember another study from Australia with thymolated syrup .


    Roland

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