View Poll Results: Origin of AHB?

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  • From a South American apicultural 'experiment' in the 1950's?

    30 78.95%
  • Other?

    8 21.05%
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Thread: Origin of AHB?

  1. #1
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    Question Origin of AHB?

    1) From a South American apicultural 'experiment' in the 1950's?
    2) Other?

    I would just like to know what the general consesus is about the origin of the Africanized honeybee in North America. How did it get here? There is a book by Caron, "Africanized Bee in the Americas" I think. I haven't read it: If you have, could you bring me up to date as far as any new information?
    Last edited by Oldbee; 02-15-2009 at 05:27 AM.

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    I like to wear my tin foil hat with chin strap firmly in place when it comes to the question of the ahb's origin.. but then again I commonly go by the tag 'et' so what else might one expect oldbee.

    I do believe that those little bad girls where here long before some supposed. the very notion that semen was distributed to some fairly active beekeeping areas prior to the termination of this experiment would also highly suggest this to be the case. some casual observation by folks one generation older than myself reinforces this notion. one event long ago (which I would just a bit later discuss with one of my commercial mentor/employer) led me to believe that the ahb had been here for quite some time.

    if I was to time line this event I would guess the mid 1960's.

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    tecumseh: Is this why some old time beekeepers 'reminisce' about their bees being hotter 'back then' than they are today? Why would anyone inadvertently/secretly or through ignorance import bees that had a reputation of being somewhat dangerous? This happened with English Sparrows/Starlings I know but,...?

    I am not a great fan of conspiracy 'theorists' by the way.

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    oldbee writes:
    I am not a great fan of conspiracy 'theorists' by the way.

    tecumseh:
    I can not right now remember the source (I want to say benjamin disreali... the reference it is a bit fuzzy right now) but someone suggested (ie said)... "that the only way someone could not believe in conspiracy theory was to know absolutely nothing about history."

    in regards to the ahb you need only to reference steve taber to confirm at least some of what I suggest in my prior post. of course my own experience in regards to this issue cannot be referenced... since it was just my experiece that I then causally made some mention of to my mentor/employer, who then informed me of what the buzz was amongst the big guys in regards to this question.

    tecumseh removes his very attractive tin foil hat, dons his cowboy hat and goes to breakfast...

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    Maybe it's not very important one way or the other, though I do find it disturbing that most references [99%]? are to the 'Brazilian connection' and yet there are 'other' conjectures/ideas/opinions.

    This is from 1999 I know: Port of Florida. http://news.ufl.edu/1999/06/22/bees/ I suppose in the 1800's, African bees could have come in on 'wooden ships'. With a much lower human population density, this may not have been noticed as much. Oh well, breakfast for me too.

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    Default What I think

    If I remember right they were trying breed them with what bees we had for better honey production in South America. The Afican bees produced so well, good hive survival rate, we just need to breed out the agressiveness and we'll have great bees for making honey right. Any how few swarms excapes the drones natrually out fly the stock we have and breed to every queen flying making our hybrd. These ferel hives slowly migrating north until here we are. I was in Florida in the 80's we heard of the Africans but they weren't supposedly there yet. However you could get hold of some mean as heck bees. It seemed some to the wild swarms and stuff daddy got that were dark were mean as the devil and stayed that way.

    If I'm wrong don't just tell me please. Tell me with a verifiable researched opinion so I can learn something too.

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    The Marion Daily Star
    Monday, September 20, 1880 Marion, Ohio

    One Hundred Dollar Bees

    Gathering Queens in Cyprus and in the
    Holy Land-Some Interesting Information
    About Bees.

    D. A. Jones, a member of the Canadian
    parliament, recently returned to
    his home at Beaton, Ontario, from the
    island of Cyprus and the Holy Land.
    His visit there was for the sole purpose
    of securing queen bees from those countries.
    His apiary in Beeton is very
    large, and he has others in the United
    States. He also established an apiary
    in Larnica, Cyrus, which is now in the charge
    of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Benton. Writing
    from Palestine to a friend in New York,
    Mr. Jones said of his journey: "I have
    been delighted with my trip through
    these parts on account of finding a very
    superior race of bees—a race that I feel
    are sanguine, and when tested, will prove to be a
    boon to America; and as I am the first
    to import them, I hope to get enough to
    America to have the race established
    there in purity. There appears to be
    but one race of bees in the Holy Land,
    but they vary in color and in some
    other respects, and on this account I
    have procured some from almost every
    part. Those I obtained in the valley of
    Shaion, Jerusalem, and all about the
    hills of Judea, also east of Jordan and
    the Red sea, were sent on mules, camels
    and asses to Jaffa, thence by steamer to
    the apiary at Larnica. Those I got on
    Mount Lebanon, in Herman, Damascus,
    and in fact in all the
    northern part of Syria, were taken
    to the coast and shipped at
    Beyrout for Larnica. Just now I am
    getting a supply from northeast of
    Damascus, near Palmyra, and they seem
    very fine. I have also received a number
    of bees for Professor Cook, of Lansing,
    Mich, for examination under the
    microscope. In some localities they refuse
    to sell me bees. I have with me a
    stock of small vials filled with alcohol,
    into each of which I place a few bees.
    These excite the curiosity of the natives,
    and they watch my every movement.
    The dangers of traveling are very great,
    as I am forced to go to distant points,
    quite out of the ordinary routes, to
    carry out my object. If my losses are
    not too heavy, I will surprise the beekeepers
    of America with this new race
    of bees. I find it less difficult to secure
    bees here than it would be in ordinary
    seasons, as the crops were a failure in
    Palestine and Syria last year, and starvation
    makes some more willing to sell
    their bees than they otherwise would
    be. If I ever get out safe from these
    tribes I will have no desire to return,
    even should I find a superior race in
    some other locality. I will hire the
    natives instead to come to me, and let
    them run the risk of having to find bees
    for me to select from, and pay them
    such sums as will induce them to perform
    that work. In fact, it will be quite
    impossible to ever do more than
    to get a few stocks to breed from, as the
    cost is so great. In some instances each
    bee could not be obtained and laid down
    safely in American for less than $100.
    All I have will surely average that
    sum.”

    Mr. Jones brought with him 200 hives.
    He placed them on exhibition in London
    before his departure for this country.
    They were viewed there by the Baroness
    Burdett-Coutts, Sir John Lubbock, Mr.
    Terry, of the British museum, and John
    Hunter, of the Times.

    Upon arriving in New York Mr. Jones
    said;
    "Notwithstanding I have gone to the
    antipodes for my pets. I cannot safely
    pass any opinion upon them yet. I am
    the first man in this country who has
    collected Cyprian and Holy Land bees in
    their native abode, and comparatively
    little is known of them. The queens are
    strong, hearty bees, able to go long distances,
    and maintain their own against
    a superior force. All that I may say
    further would be only conjecture. It
    will take time to test the superiority of
    their breed as honey producers over that
    of the Italian or Ligurian queens."

    Mr. A. K. Blood, of Massachusetts,
    was the first beekeeper that introduced
    Cyprian queens into the hives of this
    country. His were received three years
    ago from some friends traveling in the
    Holy Land. There were few in number.
    Beekeepers who inspected them believed
    that they promised much. Next year a
    Fort Plain beekeeper introduced the
    Cyprians into his apiary, and they produced
    such results as to cause a sensation
    among beekeepers and to lead to
    the trip of Mr. Jones. The Cyprian
    queen is lively and of a very light yellow
    color under its body. This often
    approaches a straw color. She is
    ferocious when attacked and resists
    vehemently. Her workers are much
    more hardy than either the Italian or
    the black bees. It is said that in Cyprus
    she will live for six years. The
    Italian queen's existence is confined to
    three or four years. Her other points
    are yet to be tested. Her drones also
    are superior to the ordinary Italian
    drones.

    Besides the Italian queen, the little
    black, large brown and gray queen bees
    are natives of this country, and have
    thrived ever since they were brought out
    by the pilgrim fathers. A good queen
    will lay 3,000 eggs in a day. Queens are
    hatched in fourteen days, workers in
    about twenty-one days, and drones in
    about twenty-four days. Among the
    successful beekeepers of this country are
    General Fitz John Porter, who has his
    apiary in Morristown, Colonel Landreth
    and S. L. M. Barlow, Esq., of Glen
    Cove. There are apiaries on the tops of
    large buildings in this city, and in the yards
    of many suburban residences.
    Bees find many feeding grounds in this,
    vicinity. There are so many rare trees,
    plants and flowers cultivated here that
    the honey gathered is rich in color and
    sweetness.

    Bees fly high in the city. It is necessary
    for them to pass over the tops of
    tall houses to escape injury from
    the thousands passing along the
    streets. Yet they often drop to the
    sidewalk and add to their store from
    syrup, molasses, sugar and other sweet
    substances. The yield of honey this
    year will not be so large as it has been
    in former ones. In California, which
    is a large honey producing country, the
    crop this year will not be one-half as
    large as the crop of 1878. The yield
    from counties in this State will be much
    smaller than during former years. The
    bumblebee stores her honey in the
    ground, and beekeepers get at it only
    with difficulty. When it is collected it
    brings fancy prices.

    The Baroness Burdett-Coutts, who is
    president of the British beekeepers' association,
    has written to a merchant in
    New York for information as to the manner
    of hiving bees and storing honey
    in this country. The Prince of Wales
    has an apiary.- New York Sun.

  8. #8
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    Quote Originally Posted by France View Post
    The Marion Daily Star
    Monday, September 20, 1880 Marion, Ohio

    The bumblebee stores her honey in the
    ground, and beekeepers get at it only
    with difficulty. When it is collected it
    brings fancy prices.

    - New York Sun.
    Not sure what bumblebees he is discussing as BB have very little honey. Just enough to nurture the young bees. Since their nests are small with only around 500 bees, I don't think you are going to get any honey. Must have smoked to much hashish while over in the Middle East gather bees and getting high!
    De Colores,
    Ken

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    If the African/Africanized bees were here [N.A.] much earlier [than first reported] and their genes/genetics dominate the EHB in one way or another [drones] why did the North American [European] honeybee succumb to mites? Africanized bees are supposed to be more resistant or tolerate mites better.

    What I read about the African honeybee is that it originated from Tanzania, Africa [or in that region] before some were taken to South America for the experiments, not from Cyprus or the Middle East.

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    This might be off topic or perhaps relative to the whole thread.

    How is it that everything I have read said that there were no bees in North American until the bees were transported by boat from Europe in the 1700s and 1800s?

    I find that hard to phantom! God is perfect. There is just no way I can comprehend there being no bees here before being invaded by the "white man".

    Jaguars and other species now only living in South American once roamed freely in the southern US. So by all rights any honey bees that were already in South America would have been present here too!
    De Colores,
    Ken

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    Here you may find partial information...
    There is more, but I will just paste enough to let you see that what has been said is in fact true, etc...

    Just to put some at ease? African bees were not only experimented with in US, they were handled by brother Adam and Dr. Kohler from Wursburg, Germany and Russian - but from there any information is impossible to verify.
    Brother Adam had success, from Dr. Kohler - the information is not available and is assumed that shipments of sperm were not in good condition to be used or inseminated queens did not survive. (Some rumors have it that they were all destroyed cause they were extremely hot as compared to German bees or Carniolans to which Germans were at the time accustomed to)




    Bee Culture Research Investigations, Southern States Bee Culture
    Research Lab
    Baton Rouge, La.
    Period: April 1 - Jun 30, 1960
    Quarterly Progress Report labeled Administratively Confidential.

    Page #13.BR 14-60. To obtain information on semen and eggs of the
    honey bee (S.Taber,3rd) Experiments on Semen --shipment: The work this
    season on this problem has continued some of the work started in the
    fall, and summer. Two shipments of semen were received from Dr. W. E.
    Kerr, in Brazil. The first arrived in very poor condition and no
    inseminations were possible. The second made according to my
    instructions was quite satisfactory and semen arrived in good
    condition. Four queens were inseminated, all are laying fertilized
    eggs. According to Kerr this particular stock (Apis mellifera
    adonsonii) is quite vicious but a tremendous honey producer. At this
    time virgins are being reared from these queens and Kerr has been
    asked to send additional semen from this stock. Three tubes of semen
    mailed to Kerr in one shipment were received but queens inseminated
    with the contents of the tubes died. Two additional shipments of
    semen, 3 tubes each have been made to Kerr, one sent airmail special
    delivery and the other sent regular mail special delivery.




    Bee Culture Research Investigations, Southern States Bee Culture
    Research Lab
    Baton Rouge, La.
    Period: Apr 1 - Jun 30, 1961
    Quarterly Progress Report labeled Administratively Confidential, with
    following: This report is not for publication in whole or in part
    without prior approval by the Chief of Investigations.
    ABSTRACT: page 1. Work Project ENT c10 - Bee Culture Investigations,
    including other pollinating insects. BR 4-61. To develop methods of
    measurement of "temper" in honey bees as a basis for genetic study. BR
    7-61. To improve individual artificial insemination. BR 11-61. To
    obtain information on semen and eggs of the honey bee.

    Page #9. A shipment of one tube of semen of A. mellifera adonsonii was
    received from Dr W. Kerr, four inseminations were attempted, 3 queens
    died immediately, the fourth is still in doubt.




    ----
    Bee Culture Research Investigations, Southern States Bee Culture
    Research Lab
    Baton Rouge, La.
    Period: Jul 1 - Sep 30, 1961
    Quarterly Progress Report labeled Administratively Confidential.
    BR 4-61. To develop methods of measurement of "Temper" in honey bees
    as a basis for genetic study.

    Page #2. In cooperation with the Ontario Agricultural College stocks
    of bees are being established from immature stages brought to Baton
    Rouge from England by Dr. Smith, of that Institution. Queens and drone
    pupae in gelatin capsules, young larvae on royal jelly, and fertilized
    eggs were included. Three stocks were represented: Adam 1, Adam 2, and
    Russian. Good sexually mature individuals were obtained from all
    categories in all stocks except the Russian drones produced very
    little semen. Virgin queens of all lines were shipped to Ontario for
    natural mating there and drone production. Artificial matings were
    made between the virgins and drones of each Adam line and some of
    those shipped to Ontario and some to Madison for virgin production.

    Page #3. BR 4-61. To develop methods of measurement of "Temper" in
    honey bees as a basis for genetic study. (Roberts) During the season
    we have produced over 25 two-way hybrids and 20 four-way hybrids for
    temper studies. The single hybrids are established in nuclei and the
    multiple hybrids are now in colonies. Variances in temper of these
    bees are observable but difficult to measure. So far we have not
    obtained a "yardstick."

  12. #12
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    Quote Originally Posted by USCBeeMan View Post
    Not sure what bumblebees he is discussing as BB have very little honey. Just enough to nurture the young bees. Since their nests are small with only around 500 bees, I don't think you are going to get any honey. Must have smoked to much hashish while over in the Middle East gather bees and getting high!


    If Mr. Jones smoked hashish or not, that was entirely his business.
    The discussion is/was about AHB and not BB.
    For those of us who know a bit more about the BB - it is known that BB deposit honey and polen in tiny "pots" and from there they use it to feed their young.
    It is possible to get honey from BB, but one is lucky to get a spoonfull.
    Quantities would indeed be very small and therefore quite expansive if one would have the time and inclination to try and gather some for sale???

    I had some experience with BB as pollinators and not as honey-gatherers. From time to time I did partake from robing their pots. This was done with a straw, cause I did not want to destroy their little set-ups for which they, BB, work so hard for. . .

  13. #13
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    Could it have been possible for someone to smuggle AHB into North America prior to the 50s debacle, certainly.

    But there is no historical evidence to indicate this, we watched the spread of AHB from the epicenter of the original experimental site, for many years until they entered the US in Texas.
    The Busy Bee teaches two lessons: One is not to be idle and the other is not to get stung.

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    [quote=USCBeeMan;394280]This might be off topic or perhaps relative to the whole thread.

    How is it that everything I have read said that there were no bees in North American until the bees were transported by boat from Europe.
    I find that hard to phantom! God is perfect. There is just no way I can comprehend there being no bees here before being invaded by the "white man".

    There probably were bees in North America [still are] before they were brought over from Europe by 'white man'. They just weren't the same kind as 'Apis melifera melifera'. The same reason we don't find exactly the same kinds of birds in Maine, Vermont, or New Hampshire as are found in Washington or Oregon.

    France: Thanks for the information/references to read over.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Oldbee View Post
    If the African/Africanized bees were here [N.A.] much earlier [than first reported] and their genes/genetics dominate the EHB in one way or another [drones] why did the North American [European] honeybee succumb to mites? Africanized bees are supposed to be more resistant or tolerate mites better.

    What I read about the African honeybee is that it originated from Tanzania, Africa [or in that region] before some were taken to South America for the experiments, not from Cyprus or the Middle East.


    Well now... I would not go as far as to say that European bees had succumbed to the mite..? They are more or less holding on, with our help ofcourse!?
    But, this is only for the fact that our European bee is the "most handled bee" in the whole world. We forever poke at them and fuss about them. We poke and knock on hives in deep winters, just to satisfy our curiosity - just to hear them roar. One can go on and on... (Than we are surprised when the bees are gone?)
    In other lands, none of this is happening. They are left to do, what they do best... The only time they are "handled" is once a year, when human hands steel from them the fruit of their year-long labour.
    Much about what we knew about bees, we had forgot, over the last hundred years or so.

    To compare here to there?
    To think, now and then? And there is more. . . This is not fair, nor it is particularly complimentary to us who call ourselves "beekeepers!"

    I do acknowledge what you are saying, Oldbee, but everything is not so clear-cut as it appears.
    First of all, I do not know what races did they encounter in Cyprus or in the Holy Land, prior too, or in late 1800?!
    It is known that Adam traveled all over the world, and collected many races and strains of bees and African were included. What and how he used what he got, is/was ofcourse his secret.
    Others brought African bees to North America in the period, say, up to WWII. Documents for this are not available, (it is doubtful that they exist at all.)
    It is common knowledge, to us old timers, that had been in profi business, that African queens were widely available for sale for a long time. I had them, and did not go to Africa to get them. Though, others did go and made a trip to those lands.

    Now, about Varroa?
    It is also said that Varroa came from Siberia??? So, Africa is all of a sudden, not so important as far as Varroa goes? Africa is important to some degree only when we here talk about "Africanized" or cerana's being able to better handle Varroa? There are more of "better" credits at hand, to attribute to cerana, but I will not go there.

    "Africanized" can also mean a lot of diferent things - to diferent people?!

    Varroa is also said that it came from the East, some believe that Japan had them - before they spread to Siberia. (Thus, why the bees from Primorski Kraj are so important. Primorski Kraj is only a jump across the sea from Japan.)
    Varroa only started to spread to Europe when the Russians completed the rail-line to Primorski Kraj, and traveling was thus enabled and with it the "bad and the ugly" came and went?!

    Secondly:
    It is unfair to compare our bees, managed and on man-made enlarged combs, plus some other things that we bestow them with and is favoured by Varroa.
    Natural, (wild, feral) bees are on combs which are made by them, to their liking and to the size which greatly differs from what we keep them on ! There is also wast difference from our way of keeping bees - or keeping them in those countries, where one dreaming of a nice hive - might as well be wishing for a moon?!

    I don't want to start something to which there will be no end? I will just ad that our bees are on crutches. They are totally dependant on us. Read: Help with providing them with a home, Made to our liking. To our standards. From materials that suit us. Even the colour of those homes has to tickle our fancy - or else. . . We force them on frames, artificial comb foundation, artificial comb, (all too big) medicines, food, etc, etc. . .
    African, Cyprian, Holy land, Russian from Primorsky region, etc. . . Those bees, are even to this day, kept mostly as naturally as they have been for thousands of years. Those people don't have the resources to keep them in nice hives or on man made combs. They can't medicate them, even if they wanted too, and the list goes on and on.

    Now, if we were prepared to let our bees be as God intended them to be? To except the loses, and let the strong survive? We would, to our amazement, find that Varroa is not as important, or problematic, as we let it be!? Varroa is ruining our hives, killing our bees and running our lives!
    In other parts of the world this is not so, and we know it!

    We, supposedly intelligent species, have a hundred or so years ago, made a decision - now we have to live with it - like it or not. . .

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    Oldbee, you are quite welcome and I concur and am ready to sign my name under your last post...

    Have a nice day and listen to your bees, they are talking to us, have much to say, only not many are listening.


    P.S.

    Oldbee, that about bees being here or not? Who came out with it? Not God. Right?



    Regards,
    France




    [QUOTE=Oldbee;394300]
    Quote Originally Posted by USCBeeMan View Post
    This might be off topic or perhaps relative to the whole thread.

    How is it that everything I have read said that there were no bees in North American until the bees were transported by boat from Europe.
    I find that hard to phantom! God is perfect. There is just no way I can comprehend there being no bees here before being invaded by the "white man".

    There probably were bees in North America [still are] before they were brought over from Europe by 'white man'. They just weren't the same kind as 'Apis melifera melifera'. The same reason we don't find exactly the same kinds of birds in Maine, Vermont, or New Hampshire as are found in Washington or Oregon.

    France: Thanks for the information/references to read over.

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    Well the usual story you hear is that 7 swarms escaped when a visiting beekeeper removed some queen excludes from the front of the hives. Well that part is true but what is not mentioned is that hybrid queens were produced and distributed to beekeepers in Brazil until around 1964. The source of this information is from the "The african Honey Bee (Westview Studies in Insect Biology)" which is a collection of chapters written by South and Central American bee researchers edited by by Marla Spivak , David J C Fletcher, Michael D Breed.

    It is an interesting but dry read.
    Home of the ventilated and sting resistant Ultra Breeze bee suits and jackets
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    Few things in life are all one thing or the other. Dr. Kerr shipped stock to the USDA who also raised them and shipped them all over the US. But they also have worked their way up from South America.

    http://www.beesource.com/pov/lusby/part17.htm

    "Two shipments of semen were received from Dr. W. E. Kerr, in Brazil. The first arrived in very poor condition and no inseminations were possible. The second made according to my instructions was quite satisfactory and semen arrived in good condition. Four queens were inseminated, all are laying fertilized eggs. According to Kerr this particular stock (Apis mellifera adonsonii) is quite vicious but a tremendous honey producer."

    "The Apis mellifera adonsonii. Stock that was lost during the late spring because of neglect has been re-imported with two successful shipments of semen from Dr Kerr, in Brazil. This stock will be available for tests by the various interested people by the end of the summer. Stock of over 90% adonsonii is now available and with a little inbreeding this will be taken to over 95%."
    Michael Bush bushfarms.com/bees.htm "Everything works if you let it." ThePracticalBeekeeper.com 40y 200h 37yTF

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    Quote Originally Posted by USCBeeMan View Post
    This might be off topic or perhaps relative to the whole thread.

    How is it that everything I have read said that there were no bees in North American until the bees were transported by boat from Europe in the 1700s and 1800s?

    I find that hard to phantom! God is perfect. There is just no way I can comprehend there being no bees here before being invaded by the "white man".

    Jaguars and other species now only living in South American once roamed freely in the southern US. So by all rights any honey bees that were already in South America would have been present here too!
    Apis mellifera were imported to North America by Europeans (Englishmen to be specific) in 1620. To Jamestown, VA. Before then the only bees in North America were nonapis types, bumblebees and such.

    When bees were brought to North America many other animals and plants were imported too, fruit trees, vegetables and animals that the colonists were familiar with back home.

    The South American honeybee, malipona, only exists in its' "native territory" and wouldn't survive in most of North America. It doesn't produce much honey either.

    Your God may be perfect, I don't know about that, but that doesn't mean that everything exists everywhere. Did you know that camels used to exist here at one time?
    Mark Berninghausen "That which works, persists."

  20. #20
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    sqkcrk writes:
    Apis mellifera were imported to North America by Europeans (Englishmen to be specific) in 1620. To Jamestown, VA. Before then the only bees in North America were nonapis types, bumblebees and such.

    tecumseh:
    I think this 'date' is associated with a shipping manfest of goods to the early english colonies. In my somewhat dated version of abc-xyz it was suggest that viking, who made settlement in nova scotia, 'may' have also brought honeybee to north america. a much earlier date, but not verifiable in regards to a paper trail.

    france writes:
    Bee Culture Research Investigations, Southern States Bee Culture
    Research Lab
    Baton Rouge, La.
    Period: April 1 - Jun 30, 1960
    Quarterly Progress Report labeled Administratively Confidential.

    Page #13.BR 14-60. To obtain information on semen and eggs of the
    honey bee (S.Taber,3rd) Experiments on Semen --shipment: The work this
    season on this problem has continued some of the work started in the
    fall, and summer. Two shipments of semen were received from Dr. W. E.
    Kerr, in Brazil. The first arrived in very poor condition and no
    inseminations were possible. The second made according to my
    instructions was quite satisfactory and semen arrived in good
    condition. Four queens were inseminated, all are laying fertilized
    eggs. According to Kerr this particular stock (Apis mellifera
    adonsonii) is quite vicious but a tremendous honey producer. At this
    time virgins are being reared from these queens and Kerr has been
    asked to send additional semen from this stock. Three tubes of semen
    mailed to Kerr in one shipment were received but queens inseminated
    with the contents of the tubes died. Two additional shipments of
    semen, 3 tubes each have been made to Kerr, one sent airmail special
    delivery and the other sent regular mail special delivery.

    tecumseh:
    interest refence france.

    I seem to recall the steve taber was working on the problem of shipping semen (at that time). I also seem to recall that this work was out of the baton rouge bee station.

    by your above reference can we assume that the african strain was actually here by 1960-1961?

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