The main component is melittin comprising 52% of venom peptides. Melittin is a strong anti-inflammatory agent and induces the production of cortisol in the body. It is also a cell-lytic.
Apamin increases cortisol production in the adrenal gland. Apamin is a mild neurotoxin.
Adolapin, comprising 2-5% of the peptides, acts as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic because it blocks cyclooxygenase.
Phospholipase A2 comprises 10-12% of peptides and it is the most destructive component of apitoxin. It is an enzyme which degrades the phospholipids which cellular membranes are made of. It also causes decreased blood pressure and inhibits blood coagulation. Phospholipase A2 activates arachidonic acid which is metabolized in the cyclooxygenase-cycle to form prostaglandins. Prostaglandins regulate the body's inflammatory response. The toxin from wasps contains phospholipase A1.
Hyaluronidase comprising 1-3% of peptides dilates the capillaries causing the spread of inflammation.
Histamine comprising 0.5-2% and is involved in the allergic response.
Dopamine and noradrenaline which comprise 1-2% increase pulse rate.
Protease-inhibitors comprise 2% and act as anti-inflammatory agents and stop bleeding.