Funny thing about that... the nosema issue was looked at with care,if you read the first link to Wiki on Nosema apis, you will learn that there is a second pathogen of Asian origin, Nosema ceranae that appears to be much more virulent and devastating to the EHB than Nosema apis.
and it was found that, of nosema samples saved, they were all testing
as "nosema ceranae", going back nearly a decade. It appears that all the
nosema in the USA has been nosema ceranae for some time, and the
cases of nosema we have seen have not been the violent and fatal
cases one might associate with nosema ceranae, but instead, much less
Funny thing about the Wikis on CCD (and bee subjects in general).
They are wildly inaccurate, and attempts to correct the more misleading
parts have been met with active "resistance". Someone or some group,
uninformed or misinformed, seems to be very defensive, and will restore
the inaccurate information within minutes or seconds, deleting the corrections.
But the symptoms observed have been far less spectacular.The symptoms are very close to those described for CCD. The fact that a majority of the CCD affected colonies tested positive for Nosema along with the fact that it requires molecular-genetic methods to differentiate the two, it could be reasonable to suspect Nosema ceranae as the CCD culprit
Nosema apis has not killed any US colonies to our knowledge, but
it seems to be everywhere. And no, the test is not "wrong", this
truly is a different protozoan. An experienced eye can see differences.
Well, irradiation kills everything, and Acetic Acid fumigation kills just(all the sterilization methods used on the CCD infected combs and equipment are among the only known methods to destroy Nosema ceranae spores as well)
about everything except AFB, so it is not surprising that these techniques
also kill Nosema. If "CCD" were nothing more than nosema, regardless of
the variety of nosema, the investigation would be over by now.