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  1. #1
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    Exclamation Scientists Identify Pathogens That May Be Causing Global Honeybee Deaths

    I posted this in the Forum under the CBS thread, then thought that it should be here in this forum. On the page with the CBS story was an area for making comments on the story. The following is a post from James Galioto, take it for what it's worth but it sounds very promising. I hope we hear much more about this in the near future.


    ---------------------------------------

    I am James Galioto the President of VDSC. Our company has the rights to the IVDS technology and developed the protocols to get the result which was confirmed by Dr. De Risi who found SARS. I can be reached at JGalioto@VDSC.US

    Scientists Identify Pathogens That May Be Causing Global Honeybee Deaths
    Researchers have identified potential culprits behind the wide-spread catastrophic death of honeybees around North America and Europe. A team of scientists from Edgewood Chemical Biological Center and University of California San Francisco identified both a virus and a parasite that are likely behind the recent sudden die-off of honeybee colonies.
    Using a new technology called the Integrated Virus Detection System (IVDS), which was designed for military use to rapidly screen samples for pathogens, ECBC scientists last week isolated the presence of viral and parasitic pathogens that may be contributing to the honeybee loss. Confirmation testing was conducted over the weekend by scientists at the University of California San Francisco. ECBC scientists presented the results of their studies yesterday to a United States Department of Agriculture working group, hastily convened to determine next steps.

    Posted by jimgali at 07:55 PM : May 07, 2007
    __________________
    Bullseye Bill in The Scenic Flint Hills , KS
    www.myspace.com/dukewilliam

  2. #2
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    Default

    Interesting and encouraging information Bill, now that they finally got a finger on the cause solutions can be developed.
    The Busy Bee teaches two lessons: One is not to be idle and the other is not to get stung.

  3. #3
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    I got a snippet of this about two week ago via university of california at san francisco.... not two days later university of california at davis reported a bacterial suspect.

    so as many suspected there will be a list of likely suspects.

    and speaking of 'other likely suspects' has anyone seen a source of a map that displays where confirmed report of the collapses has occurred?

  4. #4
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    Default CCD Info from Penn State

    This is Penn State's site about CCD. They are directly involved in CCD research, so I believe the 'noise' level of the information here is a little lower than you will find most places.
    http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/ColonyCollapseDisorder.html

    has anyone seen a source of a map that displays where confirmed report of the collapses has occurred?
    They have a map here:
    http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/pressReleases/CCDMap07Mar.pdf

  5. #5
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    thank ya' strider.....

    just another simple (and maybe no) question.. I am on a hard wire internet connection is there some reason graphics such as map should not download?

  6. #6
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    Default Bee Viruses

    Thank you Bullseye Bill for new of what I hope is encouraging progress in this mystery!

    My understanding is that there are at least 14 known viruses that bees carry and that only 2-3 have been studied!
    (my numbers might be off, slightly my lecture notes were hasty)

    I got this from who I understand was formerly lead reseachers on Varroa here at the National Bee Unit UK.
    Dr Stephen Martin

    (his published papers are at)
    http://lasi.group.shef.ac.uk/smartin.html

    But I understand the lecture I recently attended based on his Pre 2000 Varroa research, was never published

    Please? are the unstudied Viruses common knowledge with those of you who follow these things?

    To me it seems there is a lot we do not know about our girls!
    Stuck to the floor (a mostly newby beek)

  7. #7
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    1) ACUTE PARALYSIS VIRUS (APV) or acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) [BC, 4/06, p62] - Caused by airborne bacterium Pseudomonas apiseptica [Ref 16, p67] and was isolated by Bailey et al. in 1963. APV is normally thought not to cause disease symptoms in bees, it is “in-apparent” [http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pest-...es/control.htm – p16, Accessed 8/1/05]. Common in a non-infectious form in seemingly healthy bees (w/o V-mites) but is activated by feeding V-mites [Ref 15, p135]. Prior to V-mites, ABPV had never been associated w/ honeybee disease or morality. The virus was thought to be contained within non-vital tissues such as fat body cells. However, when ABPV is injected into the hemolymph in the laboratory, symptoms are very severe and the bees die quickly. As V-mites parasitizes an ABPV infected bee damaged tissues release ABPV particles into bee’s hemolymph. Once in the hemolymph, ABPV is systemic and eventually fatal [BC, 4/06, p62]. APV kills larvae, pupae, and adults only in association w/ Varroa, otherwise bees seem healthy [ABJ, 8/06, p695].
     Thought to be a major cause of midsummer bee mortality [Ref 15, p135].
     Several strains exist [Ref 15, p135].
     APV occurs when 2,000 to 5,000 mites are in colony, and will result in death of colony when there are about 5,000 mites present [http://www.biavl.dk/english/varroa-english/Outline.htm].
     Kills adult bees and brood [Ref 15, p135].
    CONTRADICTION:
     Affect only adult bees [BC, 4/06, p62])

    Symptoms
     Brood being badly cared for, adult bees lose their orientation abilities [http://www.biavl.dk/english/varroa-english/Outline.htm].
    Treatment when there are a maximum of 1,000 mites may save colony. [http://www.biavl.dk/english/varroa-english/Outline.htm].

    It has been speculated that acute paralysis virus (APV) causes PMS. However, the USDA has found neither APV, Kashmir virus (KBV), nor any of 9 other bee viruses in the majority of analyzed samples. Their conclusion is that while these viruses may be one of the causes of PMS, other factors cannot be ruled out [http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pest-...es/control.htm – p16, Accessed 8/1/05].

    2) KASHMIR BEE VIRUS (KBV) was first identified in Apis cerana from Kashmir in the late 1970s [BC, 10/05, p13]. KBV is found in a latent form in bees and pupae (honey, pollen, royal jelly, brood food [BC, 3/06, p56]). Apparently more or less harmless unless associated w/ other pathogens such as Nosema apis and Melissococcus pluton [ABJ, 8/06, p695]. Appears to be activated to a lethal state by V-mites feeding on bees. Once introduced into bee hemolymph, it can cause mortality within 3 days. [Ref 15, p136, BC, 10/05, p13]. KBV and APV are very closely related viruses
    [http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pest-...es/control.htm – p16, Accessed 8/1/05]. APV is known to be present in A. mellifera in Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. and seems to have limited distribution elsewhere. This virus differs from most other bee viruses in that it is both highly variable and very virulent. [BC, 10/05, p13].

    3) CHRONIC PARALYSIS VIRUS (CPV) An airborne pathogen [Ref 16, p67] isolated by Bailey et al. (1963) - One of the first viruses to be isolated. Symptoms are very similar to those of colonies suffering from tracheal mites and may have been the cause of the Isle of Wight disease outbreak in the 1920s. Many symptoms are similar to those of Nosema, amoeba, or presence of tracheal mites. CPV has 2 forms: Type I syndrome is recognized by trembling bees that crawl on ground w/ dislocated wings (K-wings) and swollen abdomens; associated w/ dysentery, mite infestation, and other diseases. Type II is called Hairless Black Syndrome because bees lose their hair (caused by bees pulling at the hairs of diseased bee [http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pest-...es/control.htm – p16, Accessed 8/1/05].), appear shiny black or greasy, and can’t fly but tremble and crawl about. Inbred bee races are susceptible to CPV [Ref 15, p136]. Requeening is the standard cure [ABJ, 7/04, p527]. CPV can also produce disease symptoms in bees not infested w/ Varroa
    [http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pest-...es/control.htm – p16, Accessed 8/1/05].

    4) DEFORMED WING VIRUS (DWV) or Shrunken Wing Virus [ABJ, 12/05, p955] (Excellent photo, see BC, 2/06, front cover). Not to be confused w/ “K-wing”, a symptom associated w/ tracheal mites [DLW]. First detection in U.S. was made by USDA, Beltsville, MD, September 2003 [ABJ 7/04, p558]. DWV is found in honey, pollen, royal jelly, brood food [BC, 3/06, p56]. A virus that is 99% the same as DWV appears in the brains of aggressive guard bees [ABJ, 7/05, p544].

    5) SAC BROOD VIRUS (SBV) [http://www.biavl.dk/english/varroa-english/Outline.htm, ABJ, 8/06, p695].

    6) CLOUDY WING VIRUS [Ref 15, p136] OR Unclear Wing Virus (CWV) [ht.//www.biavl.dk/english/varroa-english/Outline.htm]. Wings sometimes somewhat opaque [ABJ, 8/06, p695].

    7) SLOW PARALYSIS VIRUS (SPV) [Ref 15, p136, http://www.biavl.dk/english/varroa-english/Outline.htm, Bayer Technical Guide 1999, p4]. Paralysis of fore legs. Kills bees after about 12 days [ABJ, 8/06, p695].
    8) BLACK QUEEN CELL VIRUS (BQCV) - Affects queen prepupae and pupae sealed in cells. They become pale, then darken, staining the cell. Mostly in association w/ Nosema apis [ABJ, 8/06, p695].
    9) BEE VIRUS X (BXV) - Reduces life span of adult bees [ABJ, 8/06, p695].
    10) BEE VIRUS Y (BYV) - Associated w/ Nosema apis [ABJ, 8/06, p695].
    11) Kakugo Virus (KV) - Symptom is aggression. Virus found in bees brain [ABJ, 8/06, p695].
    12) ARKANSAS BEE VIRUS - Suggested to kill bees slowly. often masked by infection by CPV [ABJ, 8/06, p695].
    13) S-SHAPED VIRUS - Reduces longevity by 1/3, especially in winter [ABJ, 8/06, p695].
    14) RICKETTSIAL BODIES or FILAMENTOUS VIRUS - Sluggishness and inability to fly, milky haemolymph sometimes [BC, 4/06, p62, ABJ, 8/06, p695].
    15) ALABAMA VIRUS [BC, 3/07, p13].

  8. #8
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    Very nice descriptions, Dave W!

    I'm puzzled about this, though:

    1) ACUTE PARALYSIS VIRUS (APV) or acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) [BC, 4/06, p62] - Caused by airborne bacterium Pseudomonas apiseptica [Ref 16, p67] and was isolated by Bailey et al. in 1963. -Dave W
    Viruses are one taxon of pathogenic "organisms," while bacteria are a different taxon. Viruses are essentially bits of RNA or DNA encapsidated by a proteinaceous coat (no organelles, unable to replicate on their own), while bacteria are cellular (unlike viruses), have DNA genomes, and reproduce on their own. Biologists still argue about whether viruses are even "living."

    So, what does it mean that a bacterium "causes" a virus? Does the bacterium vector the virus? Does the virus replicate in the bacterium, or require the bacterium for replication in the host? Do the symptoms produced by the virus only appear after infection with the bacterium?

  9. #9
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    thank you!
    obviously I should have said,
    other viruses that have not been 'as well' researched as the primary ones.

    Glad I asked someone so well informed.

    Stuck to the Floor

  10. #10
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    Kieck . . .

    >So, what does it mean . . .
    I havent got a clue , can you help?

  11. #11
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    My geuss would be that the virus acts as a permissive factor for the occurance of the paralysis. If such a case, the bacteria could be ubiquitous in the hive environs and yet not cause disease until the virus or its vector is introduced. Notably, parasitic mite sydrome has been successfully treated with antibiotics, and mitacides even though neither of these things directly treat the viral disease.

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