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Thread: AFB control

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Dec 2000
    crown point, NY, USA


    Hi everyone,

    Below is info that I wrote sometime back:

    Hi all,
    Here is a post from Dee to Bio bee:

    I went to my notes and books on handling AFB and wax to re-read the
    TWO schools of thought for handling. Of course you have probably noticed we
    are from the school of " not popular thought" and old fashioned in our ways,
    but for some reason we are not having a problem with secondary diseases now
    our bees are on a harmonious natural system (to us!) of beekeeping using
    4.9mm foundation.

    We are from the school of thought that AFB is the least of our problems. We
    only saw it spread with trachael and varroa mites as the wave passed
    through, but at the same time we were sizing down trying to run ahead of the
    problem looking to bring our bees backonto a harmonious beekeeping system.
    Knowing when we saw it we would recognize it because the mites and diseases
    all would come under control naturally, as nothing was put on earth out of
    balance originally.

    Dr Jaycox used to talk about this and take frames of foul brood to meetings
    to pass around for beekeepers to look at and smell so they could learn how
    to handle. We would talk. I am fully aware of the fright stories of washing
    clothes, sterilizing hive tools, bee equipment etc, that is overkill in a
    modern world with it's various dopes not working in many cases. But we are
    of the old school.

    Now I do know that ONLY young larvae are susceptible to infection and they
    later show AFB symptoms when their cells are capped. But you must remember
    here that these are the symptoms, because for AFB to take hold it must be
    eaten by these same young larvae. Spores on the surface of the hive,
    woodenware, clothes of beekeeper, hive tools, combs etc are always there
    just like ecoli on a counter top in a kitchen. They only get out of control
    when the hive is out of control and therefore balance. Balance is
    everything. Working from hive to hive should be of no concern if the
    problems are cleaned up as encountered. So now here we talk Pav:

    We do not burn boxes of combs for it wastes wax! We do not sterilize
    everything in our path for that is overkill. We work bees to put them back
    into natural balance. How? We merely pull the infection and shake the bees
    off of the frames concerned. No more! and no less! Normally this means
    shaking down the major part of a broodnest or all of a broodnest. Then the
    combs ae brought in from the field for melting down and processing. It is
    called recycling of wax then on.

    Ed melts the frames of wax down into slum and wire brushes and hones the
    frames down, cleaning the wires on the already wired frames for remounting
    with newly made foundation. Now slumgum has little attraction to bees and
    will not cause robbing and here is a difference. You do not let the frames
    lay around for robbing of honey and pollen. Honey is extracted and then to
    keep the bees from robbing out the pollen and honey left in the wets, the
    combs are melted down in a hot water bath and made into slumgum.

    Here it is held until sufficient quantity is reached.

    Now what is slumgum? Slumgum is the residue remaining after the combs are
    rendered in the hot water bath. It is composed of say cocoons (bees or even
    wax moths or beetles, etc (dee getting current in mind here thinking about
    others needs)) and detritus from the brood nest combs and is usually very
    dark in colour. Now the slumgum Pav this way melted is very high in wax a
    forms a hard solid cake when cooled in a deep wax pan.

    Now Pav, slumgum from efficient wax rendering devices using hot water, steam
    and pressure under water will destroy AFB spores and this was written up by
    Drs Eckert and Shaw way back in 1960 even(so now we have three Drs talking
    about our school of thought). But note of cauction Pav for they and others
    also write that slumgum from solar wax melters may still contain viable
    spores and though it is not attractive to bees, the slumgum from solar
    melters (wax here Pav) should be destroyed.

    Now wax presses are not commonly available from be supply houses and in fact
    the only one I know still selling them is Walter T. Kelly in Ky (but without
    instructions for rigging up, for you can use the presses 2-3 different ways:
    1) steam/pressure 2) hot water --both for processing wax and 3) for a
    cappings seperator to save honey and process wax). We have two presses. One
    rigged for under water baths for pressing slumgum in double sacked burlap
    bags after chopping. The end result being the wax coming out and fertilizer
    left (good use for remains); and one rigged for water jacket/steam
    processing, pressing if necessary for honey wax seperation in the honeyhouse
    for handling wet cappings.

    The wax rendered is reused into foundation and though we process the AFB,
    EFB, chaulk though, we now find it at a lesser rate of 1-2 percent using
    4.9mm top tolerance foundation and 1-2 % is natural in Nature for a level of
    infestation and I think even in NZ one could do no better with all the
    stringent controls you have there.

    Also, Pav, anyone is welcome to look at our bees to see the mites under
    control and secondary diseases also on a natural harmonious system. They can
    check hive after hive and frame after frame so they can get to know what a
    clean system looks like without the influence of the various dopes used for
    control that sooner or later play out.

    Best regards

    P.S. The temp for water is sustained for 12 hours minimum at no less then
    190F not counting bringing the load up to that heat which then adds to the
    time, so figure at least 14-16 hours per load. Also following this the wax
    is reheated to dip and sheet to make foundation, another story!

    Clay- I will follow with another post

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Dec 2000
    crown point, NY, USA


    In the Dec 2001 American Bee Journal, Steve Taber in his
    article "Inspectors, AFB, Burn, But Why?" talked about this solution.
    As he points out, many times a queen may be partially resistant to
    AFB and by destroying the bees, we may actually be selecting away
    from resistant genes. Taber asks in the article: "What I don't
    understand is why beekeepers are so reluctant to work their bees
    toward resistance to AFB disease?" The shaking method for treatment
    of AFB has been around for some time. At the Vancouver Apimondia `99,
    Danish researcher Camilla Juul Brodsgarrd gave her presentation of
    this very method and showed that shaking is a viable control method. (Taken from biobee)

    I would also place infected comb culling under this. Total destruction of colonies is an old technique and is not neccessary. By doing this one is destroying any resistant stock that may develope.

    Now lets open up Dadants, Hive and The Honey bee (newest edition). And see how to biologically handle AFB combs to process the wax:


    5. Slumgum from efficient wax extraction devices(devices using hotwater, steam and pressure) "WILL" DESTROY american foulbrood spores; however, slumgum from solar wax melters may still contain viable spores (they don't work, clay). Though it is not attractive to bees, slumgum from solar melters SHOULD be destroyed.

    So for those of you interested in controling brood diseases biologically read the post AFB control (not afb control). Which is a post from Dee Lusby which I copyed here so I didn't have to rewrite the whole process. (see above)



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