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  1. #1
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    Feb 2003
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    Mt. Shasta, CA. 96067
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    4

    Question

    I am a 16 year old girl writing a 4-H essay about "beeepping in Colonial Times" Where could I look for more information on this subject. I have searched for 32 hours on websites . I tried inventory of ship logs. History of honey-bekeeping, museums. Does any one have ideas that might help me.

    ------------------
    Renee@rockinr

  2. #2
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  3. #3
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    Renee: there is a book Foxfire 2 by Eliot Wigginton,that has some info about beekeeping years back . my help ,,Mark

  4. #4
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    Post

    If you are interesting in beekeeping techniques, the Foxfire book (# 2) is and isn't what you want. It's really an account of how the mountain people have ALWAYS kept bees in hollow logs since they've been there, but it's not information from colonial times per se. It is how they most likely were doing it. Although most people in England and Scotland were using straw skeps the hollow logs were more popular here. Usually called bee "gums" in the Appalachians. I’m guessing it’s as good a description of methods used then as you will get.

  5. #5
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    Jan 2002
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    Pensacola, Fla
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    Wink

    Renee: go to Colonial Williamsburg, type in bee keeping; There is a lot of information on their web site. Good luck with the paper. Roy

  6. #6
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    Aug 2002
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    Evansville, IN, USA
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    Post

    Renee,

    After you have finished your paper, how about "publishing" it here? I, for one, would appreciate the information.

    Thanks,

    Dave W

  7. #7
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    Jan 2003
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    oneonta al.
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    Is'nt hollow logs, colonial bee keeping? I think that's what she said she want's

  8. #8
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    Post

    The "hollow log" / "bee gum" methods of beekeeping explained in Foxfire 2 are an account from a man in the late 1960's or early 1970's (don't remember exactly) about how he had kept bees all his life which he had learned from his father. It probably is how Colonial beekeepers kept bees. However it is not a historical document of how bees were kept in Colonial times.

  9. #9
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    May 2002
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    Danbury,Ct. USA
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    Post

    There's a whole book somewhere on this internet written by a man who kept bees in the 1800s. I can't find it right now but one of you must know where it is, no? Someone scanned it and you can read it on-line. It may have been a little later that "colonial" but he went out to his apiary in a horse and wagon.

  10. #10
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    Nehawka, Nebraska USA
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    Post

    I don't remember the exact name of the book. "Fifty years with bees"? maybe. I have read i online and it is very interesting reading. However it is in the times of AI Root, Dadant etc. and is all with movable comb hives. Colonial beekeeping was more hollow logs and straw skeps.

  11. #11
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    http://www.gobeekeeping.com/LAA.htm

    I guess it was published under several titles:

    "A Year Among Bees" was published in 1886. Subsequent editions were titled "Fourty Years Among Bees" and "Fifty Years Among Bees"

    Here's another link to a PDF file of the book: http://www.soilandhealth.org/03sov/0...0408miller.PDF


    Here's anothother that might be useful, Chapter 1 would be Colonial beekeeping, but right now the link doesn't work. Maybe it will later. It doesn't give an error, it just doesn't do anything right now. http://www.gobeekeeping.com/Lhistoryofbeekkeepinga.htm

  12. #12
    Join Date
    Feb 2003
    Location
    Mt. Shasta, CA. 96067
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    4

    Wink

    Thank you all for helping me. I am ordering a copy of Foxfire. It got such good reviews. I ordered Beekeeping for Dummies and I was presented The New Complete Guide to Beekeeping for last years essay. Are there any other books I should get before I order my first bees? Well I'm posting my essay today (Wednesday) so wish me luck. I would be happy to publish the essay on this site. I just don't know how. Can anyone help me with that. Any feedback on the essay would be good for my 4-H project. Also I'm picking up my first hives on Thursday. Thank you again Renee

  13. #13
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    Jun 2002
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    Dousman,Wi.U.S.A.
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    Post

    Renee: I was a 4H member for many years and loved it. Hope you do just great with your essay. Good luck. Karl

  14. #14
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    GOOD luck.RENEE,

  15. #15
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    Oct 2001
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    California- bay area
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    Hello fellow 16 year old!!

    To post your essay on the forum you can just copy-paste it. Also I know some bee people up near Shasta, the Wootens, they are in Palo Cedro. You could probably talk to them about beekeeping. They raise queens and do pollination. They probably don't know much about beekeeping in the colonial times though.
    Neat to talk to another 16 year old bee enthusiest!

    Joseph

  16. #16
    Join Date
    Dec 1999
    Location
    DuPage County, Illinois USA
    Posts
    9,318

    Arrow

    Hi all -
    Renee sent me her essay and I post it here for all.

    -----
    Beekeeping in Colonial Times

    How did our ancestors do it? We’ve seen the rock paintings in Africa and Spain that show people gathering honey in 7,000 B.C. The Aztec and Mayan showed signs of beekeeping in 1400 A.D. The Mayan’s even had a bee god, “Ah Mucan Cab”. Conquering Spaniards in the 16th century found Melipona beecheii, a stingless, honey storing bee tended by natives of Mexico and Central America.

    But how did bees get to the New World - America?

    Lets start with Captain John Smith and Captain Miles Standish who brought the settlers and their honey bees to Virginia in 1622. A letter from an English officer of the Virginia Company reports that - European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were shipped to America. There is reference of bees on the May Flower but, did they survive? In the 1600s honey was like air and water, people took it for granted, records are sparse. I found that early Colonial settlers also brought many trees and plants from their homeland. The Basswood tree was not native to America and from that tree, a wonderful basswood honey is produced today.

    What kind of bees came to America? The Northern European Bees that were originally shipped to America were Dark Bees (apis mellifera), they tended to be irritable and nervous. Their frequent swarming habit was favored by beekeepers before moveable frames were available. Where did they land, were they English, Danish, Spanish or French bees? We don’t really know.

    At the first Thanksgiving honey was used in the mead and other recipes.
    It is hard to tell if that honey was from hives in the New World or part of the shipment from the homelands. A man by the name of Perkins was quoted verbatim from a report written in the 1600’s a swarm must have settled on a ship about to sail from Spain... and on reaching what is now Veracruz the bees flew ashore and in to a cast which a priest provided as a hive.” Shipments to Massachusetts arrived between 1630 to 1633. It’s documented, bees arrived in Connecticut 1644. It was in 1670 Richard J. Hooker cited, “You shall scarce see a horse, but the South side is begirt with hives and bees.” He was talking about New York. In Pennsylvania by 1698.

    Bees found their way to Florida by 1763. In 1767 it is estimated in Massachusetts that about 40 gallons of mead is consumed per person. That's a lot of honey. Bees were in Mississippi in 1770 and in Alabama in 1773. They made their way to Kentucky by 1788. We do know in 1809 the Russian settlers brought bees to Alaska and there is some evidence that they came down to California, so we came assume that Washington and Oregon were also introduced to bees. Did the bees survive? In 1812 settlers took bees as far a Texas. To Illinois in 1820 and in 1821 bees had naturalized themselves in Texas where Stephen F Austen provided his party with a gallon and a half of the natural treat. That’s about 18 pounds of honey.

    The Spanish brought bees to California before the Russians did in 1830 Bees were also shipped to California from the Eastern States. John Harbison a gold seeker, started a first fruit and tree nursery but, turned to beekeeping and became the “Bee King of California” or “Father of California Beekeeping” in November 1857 he brought 67 hives to San Francisco on a steamer and later invented the California hive. He came for gold and found honey. In 1852 W.A. Buckly traveled from New York on the steamer, Sierra Nevada to Panama and than to San Francisco with one bee hive. In 1855 William Buck on the same route from New York brought 43 hives to California, but only 18 survived the trip. Christopher Shelton in March 1853, bought 12 hives in Panama from aunidentified New York man but only one hive survived. The western states received most of their bees from California.

    It was in 1860 an Austrian named Bodmer was in charge of the Italian bees S.B. Parrsons had shipped to the United States according to the records of L.L. Langstroth. Only two of the Queens were saved from the entire lot. One of these were given to Wm. Cary of Massachusetts. It was Cary’s success that Italianized a large apiary for Parsons. History is rich with stories of honey bees.

    The plight of honey bees in America was decided by their wonderful adaptability to swarm over the New World. This was important because in the fall, colonists burned sulfur to kill the swarms to get to the honey. In the spring they would capture new swarms. The Native American Indians called the bee “The white man’s fly.” The settlers mostly use the honey for food and beverages and to preserve fruits. They also used it to form cement, make furniture polish, varnish and very importantly, medicinal purposes. With all the hardships that the pioneers suffered, honey made life sweeter. it was the prime source of sweetener. Beekeeping methods in Colonial times would have been inherited by the settlers ancestors. Bees thrived in America because of the incredible nectar sources. In early America bees were a food source and little was known about their ideal pollination antics. During the colonial period, hard cider was the beverage of choice. It could easily be made at every farmhouse with honey. So it would be safe to assume wherever settlers went they would take their bees. In olden days a common practice was for newlyweds to drink mead for one month (one phase of the moon) to assure the birth of a son. Thus the term “Honeymoon.” Hives in the Colonies varied in shapes. Skeps seemed to be the favorite in Europe, but soon, with the abundance of lumber and the inability of trained people to make the skeps, log gums and simple box hives became the choice for settlers.


    Renee Rutherford
    I am a 16 years old female.
    rockinr@snowcrest.com

    I have been a 4-H member for 9 years. I have a emerald Star Rank. I am the 2003 Secretary for South Sis-Q 4-H. Our 4-H has received the County Community Service Award for the last three years and the California State Community Pride Award for the second year in a row. I raised the Top Hog in the light weight class. In 2002 I received a blue ribbon for sewing, woodworking, archery and cooking. Bee project: I started my interest in bees last year. I wanted a project I knew nothing about to see how well I could do. Im deathly afraid of bees. I entered the 4-H Honey essay contest last year and did well for California. I took the theme and made a 4-H presentation /demonstration Honey ”A taste of America’s sweetness” I received gold at county in Yreka, regional in Susanville and State at U.C. Davis. I planned my demonstration on my bee project and I’m picking up my first hives in March.

    I am the Junior in high school and have been class president for three years. I have a GPA of 3.85 at high school and 4.0 GPA at college. I play Varsity Basketball and I started rebuilding a very old Alice Chalmers tractor in auto shop. I shot my first archery buck in 2002 and I just started a job as hostess at the Hungry Moose.

    Renee Rutherford


    Resources:
    http://ag.udel.edu/departments/ento/.../chapter12.htm
    ---
    Russian settlers 1809
    http://www.main.org/cahbs/oldhist.htm
    ---
    Ancient Beekeeping

    ABC and XYZ of Bee keeping, A.I. Root
    ---
    Book not found, Lots of reference by resources below, Ordered on e-Bay ???

    American Apitherapy Society
    aas.office@verizon.net
    Sara Cornwall http://www.apitherapy.org/
    (914) 725-7944
    ---
    Introduced me to Howlan Blackiston, “Beekeeping for Dummies”

    American Bee Journal
    abj@dadant.com
    ---
    Honey Bee information for School/4-H: 1st bee came from England

    Ancient Beekeeping http://www.main.org/cahbs/oldhist.htm
    ---
    Early rock paintings - Great pictures.

    Bees & Beekeeping
    Roger A Morse
    Comstock publishing *** .
    London 1975
    ---
    Reference to History of American Beekeeping, Frank C. Pellett, fifty Years among the Bees, C.C. Miller, Bee illustration

    Beekeeping
    John E. Eckert & Frank R. Shaw
    Macmillan Printing Co, INC, New York
    ---
    Appendix: pg. 453, Important Events in American Beekeeping History, Glossary pg. 459

    Bee Culture Magazine
    --- http://www.beeculture.com/beeculture...eb/01feb3.html
    Bee Industry Epochs, 1700-1800 Colonies are wild & honey hunters rob hives. 1900s Bee are farm animals.

    Beekeeping The Gentle Craft
    ---
    General information

    John F Adams
    Doubleday & Company, Inc.
    Garden City, New York 1972
    ---
    Gives a feeling for beekeeping

    Beekeeping for Dummies
    Howland Blackiston
    blackiston@sprynet.com
    ---
    General information, Ordered Book / Author will sign!

    Bee Source, BeeSource.com
    ---
    Great chat site.
    Perkins Quote: Swarm on Spanish ship lands in Veracruz.
    Honey Bees of Santa Cruz Is.
    Bee Forum
    Michael Bush Moderator: web sites
    {http://www.beesource.com/cgi-bin/ubbcgi/Ultimate.cgi?}
    (http://www.beesource.com/ubb/Forum2/HTML/000457.html)
    (http://www.soilandhealth.org/03sov/0...0408miller.PDF)
    (www.gobeekeeping.com/Lhistoryofbeekeeping.htm)
    Mark Williams (Book:Foxfire)
    Dave W. (Publishing on site)
    Tworedroseman: (Colonial Williamsberg)
    Dick M Book on internet?

    California State Library
    Catherine Hanson-Tracy
    Reference/ILL Librarian
    P.O.Box 94237
    Sacramento, CA. 94237
    chanson-tracy@library.ca.gov
    ---
    1853 Christopher Shelton
    1855 William Buck
    John S. Harbison by Lee H. Watkins
    CA’s first modern Beekeeper”
    1854-1857 John Harbison
    Bee Source
    Sunset Magazine v.81, no 2, Aug. 1938, p11-12

    The Country Housewife
    Alex Hogg
    Rater-nofterRow
    ---
    Ample directions ref. petting the management of bees.
    Pages 89-101 ( A book written in England but used by Colony wife's in the new world)

    Capital Area honeybee Stewards
    Ancient Beekeeping http://www.main.org/cahbs/
    ---
    Who were the first beekeepers?


    David Sylvester
    Feliix@mdwsweb.com
    Encyclopedia of Food & Drink
    John F. Mariani
    Lebhar-Friedman: New York
    ---
    May Flower research www.altavista.com
    1821 Stephen F. Austin


    The Food Timeline
    Morris County Library, NJ USA
    LMOSHAD@aol.com
    Lynne Olver
    ---
    The Country House Wife
    Honey bees of Santa Cruz
    About Beekeeping in the Colonies
    History of beekeeping in the U.S.
    Astec & Mayan Bees


    Food and Drink in America
    ---
    Quote: Richard J. Hooker


    Gobeekeeping .Com
    The Introduction of Italians honey bees into the United States.
    ---
    Import of the Spanish Bees


    History of Beekeeping in the United States
    Agriculture Handbook Number 335
    U.S. Department of Agriculture
    Evertt Oerteel: apiculturist
    ---
    1622 Virginia to 1850 shipment to California in 1850
    Development of Equipment
    NH 5/97 Page 32
    1621 Letter/Virginia Co.
    1767 consumption in Massachusetts
    L.L. Langstrouth 1852
    Italian Stock 1860
    Colonial use of log gums/box hives
    Bee dates for some States.


    History of Honey Bees
    George's pink Pages
    December 2000
    ---
    The Dark Bee: Apis melllifera mellifera

    [This message has been edited by Barry (edited February 24, 2003).]

  17. #17
    Join Date
    Oct 2002
    Location
    Festus, MO
    Posts
    33

    Post

    A+

  18. #18
    Join Date
    Sep 2001
    Location
    Neodesha, Ks
    Posts
    619

    Post

    Hi Renee, Sounds like you are a very busy Girl. I enjoyed reading your Essay. I had never thought about the term "HONEYMOON".

    Good to hear you are preserving a bit of history in restoring the Alice Chalmers Tractor. I have several Old Gas Engines that I take to Tractor and Engine Shows around Kansas.

    Remember to work slowly with the Bees. Fast movements make the bees nervous. Find someone that has bees and work with them and join a local Bee Club if possible. Good luck with your bees. Dale

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