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  1. Re: Our understanding of genetics is changing

    You don't know what you are talking about. You are living in a fairy tale.
  2. Re: Our understanding of genetics is changing

    Not even half.
  3. Lactic acid bacterial symbionts in honeybees

    Several new papers have come out extolling the many virtues of Lactic acid bacteria in bee guts and honey



    Actually, Martha Gilliam did ground breaking work on this topic and wrote in 1979 that...
  4. Re: Our understanding of genetics is changing

    A lot of people worry over the possibility of GMO bees. Actually, a more realistic approach would be to use RNA to control pest, rather than genetically modify the bees. RNA can scramble internal...
  5. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Re: bioengineering
  6. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Actually, TM resistant AFB is not that prevalent. When I was inspecting I found it very occasionally and most of the cases could be traced back to one beekeeper who sold equipment to the others. TM...
  7. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    I have seen them several years old, and still contain combs. Also, I detected AFB in one abandoned hive from the residue on the plastic foundation. (confirmed by Beltsville). Presumably such hives or...
  8. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    AFB dries down to a hard scale which is detectable for years in old comb, both visually and by odor. A small square of this old comb can be sent to Beltsville and they can culture AFB from it,...
  9. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    This is a fair statement, so far as it goes. The main difference is that a hive that dies from varroa takes the varroa with it, whereas a hive that dies of AFB has spores that are viable for 35 years...
  10. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Here is a method to test for AFB that catches subclinical cases (without visible symptoms)
  11. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Did you read the paper? Nothing in supports your statement. They say



    They suggest probiotics might be added as an enhancement to the methods already used:



    The trouble with the whole...
  12. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    This is incorrect. The spores are passed to the larvae and they germinate there. They don't germinate under other conditions (except in culture dishes).
  13. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    I agree that this is probably the most prudent course for most people in most situations. However, very light infections of a few dozen cells or less can be cleared up using TM or tylosin. This...
  14. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    It is almost impossible to get reliable stats on the incidence of AFB. I have asked both NYS and USDA about this. The information is there, but they won't release it. NYS cites confidentiality...
  15. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    The work on AFB resistant bees began in the 1930s
  16. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Absolutely. I am not basing my statements on information from 40 years ago, but the entire 40 years. When Tylosin was first recommended I actually asked Jeff Pettis about it. The recommendation at...
  17. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    I recommend this not on the off chance they need it, but when AFB is present in the vicinity. There is quite a difference in that. I never use Terramycin on my own hives because I inspected this...
  18. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    I meant, while they are on antibiotics. The antibiotic prevents the disease from developing. Of course, they can get it when the drug is stopped.
  19. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    No. If you use antibiotics as prevention, the hives never get AFB. If you wait to catch it from your neighbors, you are propagating AFB. Look, I have 40 years of dealing with AFB, inspectors,...
  20. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Perhaps you would like to provide evidence that this has ever happened as a result of feeding antibiotics to bees on a seasonal basis.



    This is an excellent way to propagate susceptible...
  21. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Not only is horizontal gene transfer between species not uncommon but it is relevant in this context because it has been implicated in the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes
  22. Re: Our understanding of genetics is changing

    This would only be true of populations that are exposed to natural selection. Once a population is protected by another species, or even a protective niche, it is isolated from naturally occurring...
  23. Re: Our understanding of genetics is changing

    This was posted on another thread but is more relevant here:

    Bispham:

    Sorry. You haven't kept up with the new discoveries being made in the field of genetics.
  24. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Sorry. You haven't kept up with the new discoveries being made in the field of genetics.
  25. Re: Newbees, Mediums and AFB -- a cautionary tale

    Right. We know that some colonies are not susceptible and/or they can clean up light infections. Back in the forties researchers generated low and high susceptibility lines. But these aren't...
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